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Evidence from Resource 8 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Wiener, E.L. (1985). Human Factors of Cockpit Automation: A Field Study of Flight Crew Transition. NASA Contactor Report 177333. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center.

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  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: In response to "Question 2. Since flying the -80, have you seen any confusion or incorrect operation on the part of the other crew members? Please describe." A respondent in Wave Two replied, "Having A/P disengage for no reason causes real confusion, esp. on IFR approaches" (page 29-31)
    Issue: automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (Issue #108) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: DC9-80
    Equipment: autoflight: autopilot

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  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The following comment was written on the Wave Two questionnaire forms, in response to "Question 5. If you could make any changes in the cockpit layout, equipment or modes of the -80, what would you like to change?" ... Add a minimum fuel warning [1/20 pilots = 5%]" (page 38-40)
    Issue: insufficient information may be displayed (Issue #99) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: DC9-80
    Equipment: automation

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  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The following comments were written on the Wave One questionnaire forms, in response to no particular question. ... I have never used the flight director very much on any airplane, so I can't use it much now. However, I use it 100% for takeoff. I think the autopilot-autothrottle combination works very well. However, I must use it regularly, or I will get rusty with it." (page 42)
    Issue: automation skills may be lost (Issue #137) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: DC9-80
    Equipment: FMS

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  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The following comment was written on the Wave One questionnaire forms, in response to no particular question. ... Flying the -80 [DC9-80] you are really only a computer programmer." (page 42)
    Issue: job satisfaction may be reduced (Issue #13) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: DC9-80
    Equipment: automation

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  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: In response to "Question 4. What features were the hardest for you to learn?" A respondent in Wave Two replied, "A/T functions too complex" (page 35-37)
    Issue: automation may be too complex (Issue #40) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: DC-9-80
    Equipment: autoflight: autothrust

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  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Some of the senior captains were the most skeptical of the value and safety of increasing degrees of flightdeck automation, and the younger first officers tended to be the most enthusiastic. However, many of the older captains were strong supporters of increasing automation, and of the -80 avionics and flight guidance systems in particular. It is worthy of note that two captains reached mandatory retirement age (60) during the study, meaning that they had bid the -80 with only about two years left in their career. Both expressed the sentiment that they wanted to fly the most modern aircraft that they could before retirement." This is supported by the responses to the two following Likert scale attitude items: ... First, "12. Younger pilots catch on to automation faster than older ones." In Wave One, out of a total of 36 pilot responses, the mean response was 58 with a standard deviation of 27 and a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 99. In Wave Two, out of a total of 20 pilot responses, the mean response was 62 with a standard deviation of 19 and a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 90. ... Second, "16. Older pilots seem to resist the new technologies." In Wave One, out of a total of 36 pilot responses, the mean response was 53 with a standard deviation of 21 and a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 99. In Wave Two, out of a total of 20 pilot responses, the mean response was 54 with a standard deviation of 21 and a minimum of 10 and a maximum of 86. (page 92)
    Issue: older pilots may be less accepting of automation (Issue #132) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: DC-9-80
    Equipment: automation

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  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "On the subject of workload reduction, there were mixed reviews ... The attitude questions dealing with the workload show an overall positive view, but in interviews the crews expressed the opinion that the workload reduction overall was slight, especially when 'mental' ('cognitive') workload was taken into account, as well as the increased demand for monitoring. ... There was considerable recognition of the fact that although workload may not have been reduced much overall, it was redistributed in a manner that allowed certain operations to be performed at non-critical times (at the gate, for example) rather than during times such as second segment climb. ..." (page 93-94)
    Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: DC9-80
    Equipment: automation

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  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "In summary, the author encountered nothing in this study to warrant concern for the psychological disenchantment with flying as a profession as a result of the advance of automation ... This study has found no signs of automation-induced psycho-social problems such as negativity toward flying as an occupation, or loss of self-esteem. It would appear that his is simply not a matter worthy of concern, and until early signs of such a problem appear in the future, further research into psycho-socal area soes not appear justified." (page 91, 97)
    Issue: job satisfaction may be reduced (Issue #13) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: DC9-80
    Equipment: automation
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