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Evidence from Resource 1 piece of evidence from this resource.

Wiener, E.L. (1993). Crew coordination and training in the advanced technology cockpit. In Wiener, E.L. , Kanki, B.G., & Helmreich, R.L. (Eds.), Cockpit resource management, 199-229. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Observational Study
    Evidence: "After departing from SJC and completing the first part of the LOUPE departure (which in itself was at that time a tangled procedure creating a workload problem in any aircraft; it has since been somewhat simplified), the following clearance was issued: 'After Wilson Creek, direct 37 degrees 45 minutes north, 111 degrees 05 minutes west, direct Farmington, as filed.' ... When the crew attempted to create the waypoint by entering the coordinates (latitude, lat; and longitude, lon) into the Legs page of the CDU, they experienced considerable trouble due to the fact that the sequence of the clearance did not conform to the format required by the CDU. For example the clearance as transmitted places the hemisphere ('N' and 'W') after the coordinates; the CDU demands that it come first. The crew tried one format after another, with growing frustration. Both were 'heads down' in the cockpit for a considerable time trying various formats for data entry. At one point the crew's input of the coordinates had five errors of three different types. Finally, the captain arrived at a solution: he told the first officer to fly the plane while he searched through other pages in the CDU, hoping to find the correct format for a lat and lon waypoint to use as a model. His solution represented true 'resource management.' Information readily at hand, several CDU pages containing lat/lon formats for another purpose, was used to solve the problem. In brief, the unexpected and unfamiliar lat and lon waypoint created a high workload and a compelling demand for effective crew coordination. Just why the controller felt the need to issue a lat and lon waypoint, when he could have given bearing and distance off of a nearby VOR (which is easy to enter into the CDU), is not clear. In issuing such a complex clearance, the controller was not only burdening the crew but was also making trouble for himself." (page 223-224)
    Issue: data entry and programming may be difficult and time consuming (Issue #112) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: FMS
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