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Evidence from Resource 4 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Sarter, N.B. & Woods, D.D. (1992). Pilot interaction with cockpit automation: Operational experiences with the Flight Management System. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 2(4), 303-321. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Observational Study
    Evidence: "... the training observations indicate that pilots do not perceive the FMS as one large integrated system consisting of a variety of closely related, interacting subsystems such as the MCP or the CDU. ... Our data show that pilots think of and operationally use the MCP and CDU as, at least two different systems." (page 318)
    Issue: understanding of automation may be inadequate (Issue #105) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: B737-300
    Equipment: FMS

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Observational Study
    Evidence: "Most Frequently Observed Problems ... Visualization of FMS-calculated vertical profile" (page 315)
    Issue: vertical profile visualization may be difficult (Issue #53) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: B737-300
    Equipment: FMS

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Observational Study
    Evidence: "During the last three training sessions ..., pilot errors and questions focused on gaps in their understanding of the underlying functional structure of the FMS. Table 6 provides an overview of the most frequently encountered problems and questions. ... TABLE 6 Most Frequently Observed Problems ... Pilots often indicated that they were not sure whether there were other ways of achieving a goal or how to choose among multiple methods" (page 315)
    Issue: understanding of automation may be inadequate (Issue #105) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B737-300
    Equipment: FMS

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Observational Study
    Evidence: "Most Frequently Observed Problems ... Awareness of automatic transition to ALT HOLD mode upon level-off, and requirements to reengage a climb mode for subsequent altitude change" (page 315)
    Issue: mode awareness may be lacking (Issue #95) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B737-300
    Equipment: autoflight: autopilot
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