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Evidence from Resource 17 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Wise, J.A., Abbott, D.W., Tilden, D., Dyck, J.L., Guide, P.C., & Ryan, L. (1993). Automation in Corporate Aviation: Human Factors Issues. CAAR-15406-93-1. Daytona Beach, FL: Center for Aviation/Aerospace Research, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to "Open-Ended Question 4B. What effect has automation had on your workload? Where has it increased workload? Where has it decreased workload?" A total of 129 pilots responded to this question. There were 110 responses categorized as "Increased Workload Responses" which the analysts categorized as follows: "Preflight Planning" = 56 responses, "ATC Changes" = 19 responses, "Descent/Approach" = 15 responses, "Initial Learning" = 7 responses, "Terminal Area" = 7 responses, and "Takeoff/Departure" = 6 responses. (page 175)
    Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

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  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to "Open-Ended Question 3. What operational features should be added to improve safety and/or reduce workload?" 20 pilots out of a total of 291, 7% responded either "Standardarize EFIS Displays" or "Minimize Display Clutter" (page 170)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

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  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to "Open-Ended Question 6A. Please describe your current feelings about flying highly automated aircraft." "...pilots (n=25 [out of a total of 117, 21%]) stated that these new systems are great, however, they also expressed some degree of caution, suggesting that they are not completely confident in the systems capabilities or reliability." (page 192)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Additional Information form Open-Ended Questions" Categories were "developed as specific concerns kept emerging. Most comments were from one of the questions, whereas other were written on the back of the questionnaire or on a separate sheet of paper." The eight following statements were made by pilots and the authors grouped then under the category "Age Differences ... [statement 1] 'Coordination seems better with other crew members who readily accept and understand advanced cockpit practices. Old bold pilots who fight automation can induce stress and increase workload by (1) not understand[ing] how or why something is done forcing other pilot to do both jobs at times and (2) using a lower level of automation and thus possibly not knowing the current status of some items.' ... [statement 2] 'Had to learn mostly on my own. And some older (50s) pilots don't like to use to any degree of justification.' ... [statement 3] 'Initially, learning the systems (EFIS and FMS) was a little harder for the senior chaps with little computer game time and attitude against change. However, once over the learning curve you wonder how you ever did without it.' ... [statement 4] 'Younger pilots tend to use the technology more easily than older pilots transitioning.'... [statement 5] 'The worst parts [of initial training] were ...and how much difficulty the older pilots had in adapting to the new technology.' ... [statement 6] 'Captain neglected to turn on co-pilots inertial nav system prior to initializing FMS on that side (dual system). After co-pilot turned on INS and Captain turned on EFIS, the right side remained blank (black tubes). Captain had no clue as to how to deal with problem, or what it was (FMS needed to be re-initialized). Captains side still had a mis-compare flag after re-initializing FMS, he never canceled the warning nor did he know how. This was obviously a ground incident, however, I have seen this same problem more than once, same captain. I believe age (67) and attitude of individual as well as the fact [that] so much info is presented on the screen, that "selective viewing" is a problem.'... [statement 7] 'Overall I'm very impressed, but older pilots need more time to adjust initially (no round instruments).'... [statement 8] 'I'm getting better but other sharp PIC pilot still help me out in certain situations. The young pilots are very good. Over 50 makes it a little tougher." (page 211, 213)
    Issue: older pilots may be less accepting of automation (Issue #132) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

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  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: In the Phase 1 Workshop "Several issues relevant to the various questionnaire sections were discussed. Some of the pertinant comments and findings are stated below: ... 'Older pilots tend to want to hand fly it [the approach phase].' ... Older pilots' use lower levels of automation as compared to younger pilots who often choose to turn it all on." (page 244-245)
    Issue: older pilots may be less accepting of automation (Issue #132) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  11.  
  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to "Open-Ended Question 3. What operational features should be added to improve safety and/or reduce workload?" 3 pilots out of a total of 291, 1% responded "Airspeed Trend/Thrust Vector" (page 170)
    Issue: state prediction may be lacking (Issue #152) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  13.  
  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to "Open-Ended Question 5B. How has automation affected your crew coordination?" Out of a total of 104 pilots responding to this questions, 35 [34%] "emphasized the need or requirement for good crew coordination in the automated cockpit" and 8 [8%] responded that "they thought their crew coordination has somewhat decreased" [35+8 = 43 pilots, 41%], while 32 pilots responded "that automation has improved or made crew coordination much easier when used properly" and 23 responded "that automation has made no change in their crew coordination" [32+23=55 pilots, 53%]. The remaining 5 pilots [5%] responded "Other". (page 186)
    Issue: crew coordination problems may occur (Issue #84) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  15.  
  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to "Question 31. The trustworthiness of the automated systems in my aircraft is:" Ratings ranged from Completely Untrustworthy (= 1) to Perfect (= 7). "The mean rating for this opinion was 5.3 (s = 1.1) indicating a high level of trustworthiness." 7 % of the pilots rated the statement as either a 1 or 2 while 81% of the pilots rated the statement as either a 6 or 7. The remaining pilots rated the statement as a 3, 4, or 5. (page 128)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  17.  
  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: In response to "Open-Ended Question 1. Briefly describe an operational problem - that you personally know of - involving the automated features of your aircraft that could have a negative safety consequence. How could the error have been avoided?" 22 out of 339 [22/339 = 6%] responses were in the category of Design/Interface. (page 163)
    Issue: interface may be poorly designed (Issue #39) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  19.  
  20. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to "Open-Ended Question 3. What operational features should be added to improve safety and/or reduce workload?" 8 pilots out of a total of 291, 3% responded either "Keep Past Waypoints Alive" or "Terrain/Obstacle Information Displayed". (page 170)
    Issue: insufficient information may be displayed (Issue #99) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  21.  
  22. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to "Open-Ended Question 7A. List the ways you feel automation has affected cockpit design (e.g., physical layout, information presentation, use of color, size of keypad)." 7 pilots out of a total of 98, 7% responded that they disliked "Display Intensity in Bright Sunlight" (page 202)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  23.  
  24. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: In response to "Open-Ended Question 1. Briefly describe an operational problem - that you personally know of - involving the automated features of your aircraft that could have a negative safety consequence. How could the error have been avoided?" 1 pilot responded: "Altitude select being inadvertently deselected by moving the autopilot pitch trim knob after altitude select has 'captured'. No aural warning and limited visual warning on EFIS occurs." (page 163, 166)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  25.  
  26. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: In response to "Open-Ended Question 5C. Describe any problems that you had in an automated aircraft during: (a) your initial [emphasized] operating experience, and (b) your subsequent [emphasized] operating experience." 1 pilot responded: "Trying to get the proper information when you want and trying to [get] this information quickly. With EFIS etc. you get a lot of information. Had problem with digital airspeed and no needle. Its hard to pick up trend even though there is a trend rate. Round dials are easier than vertical dials." (page 189-190)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  27.  
  28. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to "Open-Ended Question 6A. Please describe your current feelings about flying highly automated aircraft." 13 pilots out of a total of 117, 11% responded that it "Decreases Workload" (page 192)
    Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  29.  
  30. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to "Open-Ended Question 5B. How has automation affected your crew coordination?" Out of a total of 104 pilots responding to this questions, 35 "emphasized the need or requirement for good crew coordination in the automated cockpit" and 8 responded that "they thought their crew coordination has somewhat decreased" [35+8 = 43 pilots, 41%], while 32 pilots responded "that automation has improved or made crew coordination much easier when used properly" and 23 responded "that automation has made no change in their crew coordination" [32+23=55 pilots, 53%]. The remaining 5 pilots [5%] responded "Other". (page 186)
    Issue: crew coordination problems may occur (Issue #84) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  31.  
  32. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to "Question 31. The trustworthiness of the automated systems in my aircraft is:" Ratings ranged from Completely Untrustworthy (= 1) to Perfect (= 7). "The mean rating for this opinion was 5.3 (s = 1.1) indicating a high level of trustworthiness." 7 % of the pilots rated the statement as either a 1 or 2 while 81% of the pilots rated the statement as either a 6 or 7. The remaining pilots rated the statement as a 3, 4, or 5. (page 128)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: -4
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  33.  
  34. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to "Open-Ended Question 4B. What effect has automation had on your workload? Where has it increased workload? Where has it decreased workload?" A total of 129 pilots responded to this question. There were 126 responses categorized as "Decreased Workload Responses" which the analysts categorized as follows: "Enroute" = 39 responses, "General Decrease" = 31 responses, "Once Experienced with Systems" = 13 responses, "Automatic Computations" = 13 responses, "Preflight & Programming" = 10 responses, "Descent/Approach" = 8 responses, "Takeoff/Departure" = 8 responses, and "SIDs/STARs/Flight Plans Easily Accessed" = 8 responses. (page 175)
    Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79) See Issue details
    Strength: -5
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
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