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Evidence from Resource 12 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Lyall, B., Wilson, J., & Funk, K. (1997). Flightdeck automation issues: Phase 1 survey analysis. Available: http://www.flightdeckautomation.com/ExpertSurvey/e_report.aspx.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comments were made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "At times the electronics take away the ability of the pilot to make corrections of to be flexible in order to accommodate changing situations." (B747 First Officer) "We spend too much time with our heads and eyes in the cockpit. ... The tiller is regulated how fast it turns the nosewheel. I can't turn or straighten immediately if need be. I am not in control of this aircraft." (A320 Captain) "In some situations, the amount of programming and/or button pushing can be a serious distraction in the cockpit. Also voltage surges, humidity, temperature can all cause glitches or anomalies that can't be reproduced or explained in a lab. At times the electronics take away the ability of the pilot to make corrections or to be flexible in order to accommodate changing situations." (B747 First Officer) "Increased heads-down time which causes loss or degradation of situational awareness. ... Many new technical applications become so compelling that the pilots inadvertently focus on the problem which creates an insidious safety concern. This problem is particularly noticeable in terminal areas." (B757/767 Captain)
    Issue: automation may demand attention (Issue #102) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comment was made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "As identified in recent research, unanticipated mode changes are a concern, particularly when transitioning from climbing/descending to level flight. Complicating this picture is that - in the ... fleet - we have 3 different glass cockpits (757, 737-300, A320) each with a particular philosophy and design . There are vexing differences even between the 757and 737, both Boeings." (B757 Captain) In response the questionnaire statement, "To your knowledge, has this ever contributed to an accident or incident? Describe.", this B757 captain stated: "The situation described above for the 757 results in missed crossing restrictions on virtually every descent ! Error can range from 50 to 200 feet and 10 to 30 knots. Many pilots compensate by building a 2 or more mile "pad" into the LNAV course, i.e. creating a waypoint ahead of the crossing restriction to reach the altitude early."
    Issue: workarounds may be necessary (Issue #107) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comment was made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "Instead of changing one or two radio receivers only [emphasized] and making a slight turn, now one must change radio frequency on one receiver, re-program the FMC for the new runway, cycle both flight director switches (preferable simultaneously), then fly aircraft or program autopilot to new course." (aviation safety analyst, retired pilot) "Crew coordination on flight decks which are automated is a problem because one pilot must fly while the other programs the automated systems. Often, in busy periods, there is insufficient time to check programming for accuracy. This is true of aircraft control and navigation." (B747 Captain)
    Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comments were made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "A number of audible information inputs we get while operating the A320, while designed with the intent of providing us useful info, have two problems: 1) we cannot 'cancel' the aural input after we are aware of it (much like pushing a master caution lite 'out' after understanding the cause) and 2) the volume level is not adjustable and its too loud. I believe that the whole point of an audio callout is to give me information, but that once I receive this info, I should be able to cancel such input, and I should be able to control/modify/stop the transmission of this info at will." (A320 Captain) "The Altitude Alert Warning horns and [emphasized] the TCAS Warning horns that send the tone through our headsets (as opposed to the overhead speaker) are way too loud. Not only is it painful to the ear, it makes it impossible to hear ATC's directions, etc. this is true for about 70-80% of 737-300[s] using this configuration. Solution: Simply turn down the volume or [emphasized] reroute the tone to the overhead speakers." (B737 Captain) "TCAS aural commands being sounded over headset while ATC could be trying to relay information or trying to communicate with other crew member." (B737 Captain)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: A320
    Equipment: automation

  9.  
  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comment was made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "To fly an automated aircraft takes more planning. Few pilots plan far enough ahead to use automated systems." (B747 Captain)
    Issue: planning requirements may be increased (Issue #158) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  11.  
  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comment was made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "Training 'old' pilots to use technology." (A320 First Officer)
    Issue: older pilots may be less accepting of automation (Issue #132) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  13.  
  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comment was made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "Not enough information is presented to the crew for them to make timely, informed decisions or corrective actions." (B737 Captain)
    Issue: insufficient information may be displayed (Issue #99) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B737
    Equipment: automation

  15.  
  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comments were made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "FMAs (Flight Mode Annunciations) are cryptic and not well presented." (B737 Captain) "It takes at least 6 months for a transitioning pilot to get used to where the information regarding flight is displayed." (B747 Captain) "Standard FMC/CDU Display ..." (B737 Captain)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  17.  
  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comment was made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "Training pilots I find a lack of basic navigation skills/techniques that cause a 'introspective' perception of where the aircraft is." (747 First Officer)
    Issue: deficiencies in basic aircraft training may exist (Issue #63) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment:

  19.  
  20. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comment was made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "As identified in recent research, unanticipated mode changes are a concern, particularly when transitioning from climbing/descending to level flight. Complicating this picture is that - in the ... fleet - we have 3 different glass cockpits (757, 737-300, A320) each with a particular philosophy and design . There are vexing differences even between the 757and 737, both Boeings." (B757 Captain) In response the questionnaire statement, "To your knowledge, has this ever contributed to an accident or incident? Describe.", this B757 captain stated: "The situation described above for the 757 results in missed crossing restrictions on virtually every descent ! Error can range from 50 to 200 feet and 10 to 30 knots. Many pilots compensate by building a 2 or more mile "pad" into the LNAV course, i.e. creating a waypoint ahead of the crossing restriction to reach the altitude early."
    Issue: mode transitions may be uncommanded (Issue #44) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  21.  
  22. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comment was made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "Feeling like a system monitor vs. a pilot." (A320 Captain)
    Issue: job satisfaction may be reduced (Issue #13) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: A320
    Equipment: automation

  23.  
  24. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comments were made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "At times the electronics take away the ability of the pilot to make corrections of to be flexible in order to accommodate changing situations." (B747 First Officer) "We spend too much time with our heads and eyes in the cockpit. ... The tiller is regulated how fast it turns the nosewheel. I can't turn or straighten immediately if need be. I am not in control of this aircraft." (A320 Captain) "In some situations, the amount of programming and/or button pushing can be a serious distraction in the cockpit. Also voltage surges, humidity, temperature can all cause glitches or anomalies that can't be reproduced or explained in a lab. At times the electronics take away the ability of the pilot to make corrections or to be flexible in order to accommodate changing situations." (B747 First Officer)
    Issue: pilots have responsibility but may lack authority (Issue #12) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation
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