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Evidence from Resource 2 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Norman, S.D. & Orlady, H.W. (1988). Flightdeck Automation: Promises and Realities. Final Report of a NASA/FAA Industry Workshop. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center.

  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Observational Study
    Evidence: "Although automation has been a clear benefit, some factors were cited which have been involved in incidents with automation. These include: ... Inadequate cockpit discipline and allocation of responsibilities between the pilot-not-flying and the pilot flying" (page 150)
    Issue: pilot control authority may be diffused (Issue #104) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Observational Study
    Evidence: "Workload on the pilot not flying, particularly in a terminal area while the aircraft is being flown manually, can be very high. Britannia Airways Ltd. has used heart rate data to augment subjective pilot ratings of workload. ... Heart rate measurements were taken for crews flying the Boeing 767 and the 737 which have very different levels of automation. Both take-off and landing flight phases, as well as different operating modes, were measured. The difference between the 767 and 737 is illustrated in Figure 9 [which shows a comparision between the heart rate response for the same pilot flying the B737 and the B767] for similar ILS approaches at Luton using the flight director. The heart rate for the 767 approach is about 10 beats/minute lower than for the 737. Figure 10 compares the heart rate responses during standard instrument departures out of Luton. On the 767, the autopilot is engaged at about 500 feet before the aircraft is cleaned up. On the 737, due to noise abatement procedures, the autopilot is engaged after the flaps are retracted and the aircraft is in trim. As a last comparison, Figure 11 shoes the difference in heart rates for different operating modes during a standard instrument departure from Luton in the 767. Compare to hand flying (bottom trace), heart rates are reduced when an autopilot (top trace) is used. Rates are also reduced when a flight director which is driven by the flight management (FMS) is used (middle trace). In summary, for the take-off and approach to landing phase, the Boeing 737 crews had generally higher rates than the 767 crews. However, the rates during the actual flare to touch down flight phase were approximately equal for both aircraft. These heart rates were also higher for actual flight conditions than would be expected in the simulator and this was probably due to an inability to properly simulate the real world, particularly wind conditions." (page 29-31)
    Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B737 & B767
    Equipment: automation
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