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Evidence from Resource 36 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Morters, K. (1988). B767 Flightdeck Automation Research. Research Paper 32:420, 1-141.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 9: "In your opinion, what changes (if any) could be made to the B767 flight panel/system presentation?" ... "Twenty eight pilots [out of 65, 43%] either indicated that they would not like to see any changes to flight-deck presentation, or were unable to comment as their experience on the aircraft was limited. Thirty six pilots [55%] suggested some design changes." (page 84, 108)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 6: "What is your opinion of the B767 training package?" ... "In general, the responses from the pilots was that the course is good. Thirty four pilots [out of 65, 52%] rated the course from 'okay' to 'excellent', however, 11 of these pilots were critical of some aspect of the course. A further 29 pilots [45%] expressed concern about the course. Generally, they considered the course only covered the 'bare basics' rather than provide an indepth understanding of the systems." That is 11 + 29 = 40 pilots (62%) had some criticism of the training. (page 75, 106-10)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 3: "Pilots should have more input into the basic design of flight-decks." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 78 and the standard deviation was 21. The minimum response was 25 and the maximum was 100. (page 45, 54)
    Issue: operational knowledge may be lacking in design process (Issue #121) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 5: "Would you like to see any changes to the structure of your simulator continuation training details, for example, more/less emphasis on manual control?" ... "Seven [out of 65, 11%] of the pilots were unable to answer this question as that had only recently converted to the B767 and had not yet had a simulator detail. A further 15 [23%] pilots simply wrote 'no' on their questionnaire. The majority of the pilots however, would like some change made to the details." That is, 43 out of 65 pilots (66%) would like to see some change made. (page 72, 105)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  9.  
  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 2: "Does the B767 course need restructuring, for example, the time spent on certain systems, order of presentation?" ... "While 24 [out of 65, 37%] of the pilots indicated that the course did not need restructuring, 16 [25%] indicated that the first week of course was too 'crammed, pressurized or demanding'. The rest of the group [25 pilots, 38%] indicated they would like to see some changes made to the course." That is, 41 of the 65 pilots (63%) thought the course needed restructuring. (page 64, 104)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  11.  
  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots ... are also concerned that overuse of automation or too much automation, will erode their manual flying skills (No 6 ... ). " ... Statement 6: "I am concerned about the possible loss of my flying skills with too much automation." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 63 and the standard deviation was 27. The minimum response was 7 and the maximum was 100. (page 45, 57)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  13.  
  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots also strongly endorse the comment that they hand fly often to maintain manual skills for simulator details (No 20)" ... Statement 20: "I hand fly often to maintain my manual skills for simulator details." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 64 and the standard deviation was 26. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 48)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  15.  
  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots ... are also concerned that overuse of automation or too much automation, will erode their manual flying skills (No ... 39). " Statement 39: "Pilots who overuse automation will see their flying skills suffer." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 68 and the standard deviation was 24. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 57)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  17.  
  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 4: "Do you believe that the amount of training given for those BASIC handling skills of the automatics is adequate during the B767 conversion course? If your answer is no, would you indicate the areas that more training should be made available." ... "While 23 [out of 65, 35%] of the pilots considered that the training in this area was adequate, an equal number disagreed." That is, 23 out of 65 pilots (35%) disagreed that the training is adequate. "A number of the pilot's comments (19)[29%], cited the basic training of the FMS/FMC, AFDS and TMS as being inadequate." (page 69, 105)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  19.  
  20. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 16: "After the conversion course, the B767 flight director was still a mystery." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 30 and the standard deviation was 24. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 79. (page 45, 48)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: FMS

  21.  
  22. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "...they [the pilots] did not believe that the course spent enough time on the 'basic' modes of the flight guidance system (No 13)." ... Statement 13: "The conversion course didn't spend enough time on 'basic modes' of the F.G.S." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 54 and the standard deviation was 25. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 45, 48)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: autoflight

  23.  
  24. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 15: "In the selection of automation, economics and design are given higher priority than pilot requirements." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 55 and the standard deviation was 20. The minimum response was 25 and the maximum was 100. (page 45, 54)
    Issue: commercial incentives may dominate (Issue #127) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  25.  
  26. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 8: "The current training package directs itself sufficiently to specific system failures that may occur." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 55 and the standard deviation was 25. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 45, 47)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  27.  
  28. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 38: "The pilot's role is changing from one of controller of the aircraft to monitor of the automated systems." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 57 and the standard deviation was 26. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 59)
    Issue: pilot's role may be changed (Issue #144) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  29.  
  30. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "... there is ... mild agreement that automation induces complacency (No 26...)." ... Statement 26: "Automation induces complacency on the part of the flight crew." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 55 and the standard deviation was 26. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 59)
    Issue: pilots may be overconfident in automation (Issue #131) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  31.  
  32. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots mildly rejected the comment that they have enough information about the technical complexities of the automated systems. (No 37) Although not specified on the questionnaire, these sources of information could include manuals, the conversion course and the information as presented throughout the flight management system. A number of pilot comments (in the open ended questions) reinforce this result." ... Statement 37: "I have enough information at my fingertips about the technical complexities of the automated systems." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 46 and the standard deviation was 24. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 87. (page 46-47)
    Issue: understanding of automation may be inadequate (Issue #105) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  33.  
  34. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 32: "I use automatic devices mainly because the company wants me to." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 36 and the standard deviation was 23. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 59)
    Issue: company automation policies and procedures may be inappropriate or inadequate (Issue #166) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: atuomation

  35.  
  36. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots also strongly endorse the comment that they hand fly often to maintain manual skills for simulator details (No 20)" ... Statement 20: "I hand fly often to maintain my manual skills for simulator details." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 64 and the standard deviation was 26. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 48)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  37.  
  38. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 23: "I have total confidence in automation." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 46 and the standard deviation was 24. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 50)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  39.  
  40. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 4: "The automated equipment is more reliable than non-automated equipment." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 51 and the standard deviation was 21. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 93. (page 45, 50)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  41.  
  42. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots ... are also concerned that overuse of automation or too much automation, will erode their manual flying skills (No 6 ... ). " ... Statement 6: "I am concerned about the possible loss of my flying skills with too much automation." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 63 and the standard deviation was 27. The minimum response was 7 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 57)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  43.  
  44. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 15: "In the selection of automation, economics and design are given higher priority than pilot requirements." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 55 and the standard deviation was 20. The minimum response was 25 and the maximum was 100. (page 45, 54)
    Issue: commercial incentives may dominate (Issue #127) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  45.  
  46. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots ... are also concerned that overuse of automation or too much automation, will erode their manual flying skills (No ... 39). " Statement 39: "Pilots who overuse automation will see their flying skills suffer." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 68 and the standard deviation was 24. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 57)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  47.  
  48. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 3: "Pilots should have more input into the basic design of flight-decks." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 78 and the standard deviation was 21. The minimum response was 25 and the maximum was 100. (page 45, 54)
    Issue: operational knowledge may be lacking in design process (Issue #121) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  49.  
  50. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 38: "The pilot's role is changing from one of controller of the aircraft to monitor of the automated systems." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 57 and the standard deviation was 26. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 59)
    Issue: pilot's role may be changed (Issue #144) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  51.  
  52. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 8: "The current training package directs itself sufficiently to specific system failures that may occur." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 55 and the standard deviation was 25. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 45, 47)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  53.  
  54. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 5: "Would you like to see any changes to the structure of your simulator continuation training details, for example, more/less emphasis on manual control?" ... "Seven [out of 65, 11%] of the pilots were unable to answer this question as that had only recently converted to the B767 and had not yet had a simulator detail. A further 15 [23%] pilots simply wrote 'no' on their questionnaire. The majority of the pilots however, would like some change made to the details." That is, 43 out of 65 pilots (66%) would like to see some change made. (page 72, 105)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  55.  
  56. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 6: "What is your opinion of the B767 training package?" ... "In general, the responses from the pilots was that the course is good. Thirty four pilots [out of 65, 52%] rated the course from 'okay' to 'excellent', however, 11 of these pilots were critical of some aspect of the course. A further 29 pilots [45%] expressed concern about the course. Generally, they considered the course only covered the 'bare basics' rather than provide an indepth understanding of the systems." (page 75, 106-10)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  57.  
  58. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 16: "After the conversion course, the B767 flight director was still a mystery." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 30 and the standard deviation was 24. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 79. (page 45, 48)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  59.  
  60. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 9: "In your opinion, what changes (if any) could be made to the B767 flight panel/system presentation?" ... "Twenty eight pilots [out of 65, 43%] either indicated that they would not like to see any changes to flight-deck presentation, or were unable to comment as their experience on the aircraft was limited. Thirty six pilots [55%] suggested some design changes." (page 84, 108)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  61.  
  62. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 21: "I am concerned about sudden failures of the automated system." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 33 and the standard deviation was 20. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 78. (page 46, 51)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  63.  
  64. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 4: "Do you believe that the amount of training given for those BASIC handling skills of the automatics is adequate during the B767 conversion course? If your answer is no, would you indicate the areas that more training should be made available." ... "While 23 [out of 65, 35%] of the pilots considered that the training in this area was adequate, an equal number disagreed." That is, 23 out of 65 pilots (35%) disagreed that the training is adequate. "A number of the pilot's comments (19)[29%], cited the basic training of the FMS/FMC, AFDS and TMS as being inadequate." (page 69, 105)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  65.  
  66. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 2: "Does the B767 course need restructuring, for example, the time spent on certain systems, order of presentation?" ... "While 24 [out of 65, 37%] of the pilots indicated that the course did not need restructuring, 16 [25%] indicated that the first week of course was too 'crammed, pressurized or demanding'. The rest of the group [25 pilots, 38%] indicated they would like to see some changes made to the course." That is, 41 of the 65 pilots (63%) thought the course needed restructuring. (page 64, 104)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  67.  
  68. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 32: "I use automatic devices mainly because the company wants me to." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 36 and the standard deviation was 23. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 59)
    Issue: company automation policies and procedures may be inappropriate or inadequate (Issue #166) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  69.  
  70. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 8: "Do you consider there is a contradiction between the company's requirement of maximum use of automation on the line, and the requirement to demonstrate proficiency in hand flying the simulator during your training checks? Please comment." ... "Thirty seven pilots [out of 65, 57%] did not believe a contradiction existed about company policy, as there is ample opportunity to hand fly the aircraft during line operation and thereby maintain proficiency." (page 81, 107)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  71.  
  72. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 33: "I have serious concerns about the reliability of the new automated equipment." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 27 and the standard deviation was 23. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 51)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
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