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Evidence from Resource 45 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Curry, R.E. (1985). The Introduction of New Cockpit Technology: A Human Factors Study. NASA Technical Memorandum 86659, 1-68. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "80% agree that 'pilots who overuse automation will see their flying skills suffer' (#18)." while 15% disagreed with the statement and 6% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 22)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "87% agree that they 'hand-fly part of every trip to keep my skills up' (#14)" while 9% disagreed with the statement and 4% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 22)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "Interestingly, this concern for other pilots [who overuse automation and consequently see their flying skills suffer] did not always carry over to themselves because only 63% agreed that 'I am concerned about a possible loss of my flying skills with too much automation' (#31)" while 29% disagreed with the statement and 8% neither agreed nor disagreed. "It is felt, however, that some pilots did not agree with this statement because [italicized by author] they do a lot of hand-flying." (page 22)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "27% agreed that they were 'worried about sudden failures of the new devices like the FMS computer and the CRT displays' (#9), although the majority, 64%, disagreed with the statement" while 10% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 21)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: FMS

  9.  
  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: (#16) "I can find the exact location of important controls and switches without any hesitation." 58% of the pilots strongly or slightly agreed, 33% of the pilots strongly or slightly disagreed with the statement, and 10% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 44-45)
    Issue: controls of automation may be poorly designed (Issue #37) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation controls

  11.  
  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "31% ... agreed to some degree that they 'use automatic devices mainly because the company wants me to' (#35)" while 43% slightly or strongly disagreed with the statement and 27% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 21)
    Issue: company automation policies and procedures may be inappropriate or inadequate (Issue #166) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  13.  
  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: (#26) "Sometimes what the automatics do or don't do takes me by surprise." 26% of the pilots strongly or slightly agreed, 62% of the pilots strongly or slightly disagreed with the statement, and 13% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 44-45)
    Issue: automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (Issue #108) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  15.  
  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "26% agreed that they 'have serious concerns about the reliability of this new equipment,' and ... the majority disagreed (62%)." (#25) while 13% neither agreed nor disagreed with the statement. (page 22)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  17.  
  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: During the cockpit observation: "On at least four of the segments we experienced the early-capture-at-low-altitude phenomenon reported by the pilots. In every case, both pilots were surprised by the sudden reduction in thrust as the aircraft leveled off, even though they had selected a higher altitude by that time." (page 19-20)
    Issue: automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (Issue #108) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: autoflight

  19.  
  20. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "About 25% or [in sic] the pilots reported experiencing some confusion, or seeing others become confused about the interaction of the autothrottles and autopilot." (page 23)
    Issue: understanding of automation may be inadequate (Issue #105) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: autoflight: autopilot & autoflight

  21.  
  22. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "A significant number of pilots wished to have more experience hand flying the simulator" (page 17)
    Issue: deficiencies in basic aircraft training may exist (Issue #63) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  23.  
  24. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Nearly 20% of the pilots reported that at one time or another, the autopilot either turned the wrong way (usually on LOC intercept or when passing over a waypoint), or did not capture the desired route or course." (page 24)
    Issue: automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (Issue #108) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: autoflight: autopilot

  25.  
  26. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Several of the pilots would have liked more training with the AFDS and Mode Control Panel." (page 17)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: autoflight

  27.  
  28. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Eleven pilots [out of 104 pilots, 11%] reported confusion between the heading orientation and the track up nature of the map display; as they describe it, this almost always occurs during vectoring in the terminal area when they are controlling aircraft heading, not track." (page 16)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation displays

  29.  
  30. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "An almost traditional complaint of computer users is the slow response time, and these pilots were no exception. Usually the complaint concerned their time in the terminal area where they perceived fast flight crew response as a necessity due to ATC changes" (page 13)
    Issue: automation performance may be limited (Issue #126) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  31.  
  32. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "A large number of pilots felt that the response time for the Flight Management Computer was excessive. When a specific instance was mentioned, it usually involved complying with ATC requests while maneuvering in the terminal area." (page 22)
    Issue: flightdeck automation may be incompatible with ATC system (Issue #82) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: FMS

  33.  
  34. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Incident Reports Two incident reports were examined for the relevant human factors and automation elements. ... [One of the incident reports involved] an inflight spool-down of engines, resulting in temporary loss of the CRT displays. When the CRT displays were present, the EICAS was filled with messages, and he had difficulty assimilating the information except for the only red message (a cabin altitude warning). He could not discriminate between the second-level caution messages (yellow, starting in the left margin) and the advisory messages (yellow, indented one space margin). Furthermore, he had many questions: 'I turned on the APU, is it coming up to speed or not? Are the engines really running or are they windmilling?' He felt another crew member might have been useful, not as much for executing procedures as for helping diagnose the problem." (page 20)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  35.  
  36. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Almost 10% of the pilots reported some discomfort with the speed synchronization at the time the Flight Level Change (FLCH) mode is engaged. FLCH is designed to climb at the existing IAS and climb thrust. The reason for the confusion seems to be that the SPD window shows a value at the same time FLCH is engaged, but this value has no bearing on FLCH operation since the displayed speed automatically changes to the existing speed when FLCH is engaged. These pilots felt that FLCH should hold the speed displayed in the window, instead of the existing speed." (page 24)
    Issue: interface may be poorly designed (Issue #39) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: autoflight

  37.  
  38. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Pilots feel that flying with partial automation is different [than manual flying], and requires more monitoring." (page 35)
    Issue: monitoring requirements may be excessive (Issue #5) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  39.  
  40. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: (#19) "The ADI and EHSI displays are always legible and easy to read." 79% of the pilots strongly or slightly agreed, 16% of the pilots strongly or slightly disagreed with the statement, and 5% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 44-45)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation displays

  41.  
  42. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Regardless of the value displayed in the speed-select window at the time FLCH is engaged, this displayed value is changed to the existing speed and the pitch autopilot holds the existing IAS. The autohrottles advance to maximum allowable thrust (if climbing) or reduced thrust (if descending). Most pilots who reported this confusion felt the target speed should have been that which was displayed in the window at the time of engagement." (page 15)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: autoflight: MCP

  43.  
  44. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "A large number of pilots felt that the response time for the Flight Management Computer was excessive. When a specific instance was mentioned, it usually involved complying with ATC requests while maneuvering in the terminal area." (page 22)
    Issue: automation performance may be limited (Issue #126) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: FMS

  45.  
  46. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Some pilots, in their response to the question 'Have you ever been surprised by the automatics' answered in the affirmative" (page 24)
    Issue: automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (Issue #108) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  47.  
  48. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The tendency for some pilots to program a recovery, and not 'turn it off',' was also confirmed by interviews and discussions with line training pilots and check airmen. It does not appear to be a fascination with the new equipment. Instead, it appears to be a habit learned during simulator training and most line training, where the instructor's job is to ensure that the student learns the operation of the automatic equipment. It seems to be taken for granted that the student knows there is an airplane behind the panel, and the student knows when to turn it all off." (page 30)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: FMS

  49.  
  50. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "On several of the line observation trips, the NASA observer noticed the following. When things did not go as planned, or when the pilot was 'surprised' by the automatics (e.g., the early altitude capture with high rate of climb), the pilot would try to 'program' his way out of the anomalous condition. The situation would sometimes get worse and more confusing, not better." (page 30)
    Issue: pilots may be reluctant to assume control (Issue #26) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  51.  
  52. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "... questionnaire respondents asked for some instruction on computer concepts." one respondent stated " 'From what I've seen so far, we could use a bit more emphasis on the 'background' of some of the automatics to better able a crew to understand what's happening or not happening when things don't go as programmed...' " (page 29)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: FMS

  53.  
  54. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "... questionnaire respondents asked for some instruction on computer concepts." one respondent stated " 'Ground school should not teach just function of the CDU/computers, but a philosophy of computer applications and programming as applicable to our aircraft.' " (page 29)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: FMS CDU

  55.  
  56. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "When asked on the questionnaire what material they wanted more or less of in training, the strongest responses were requests for: more FMS and CDU training (in general); more 'hands on' experience and training with the FMS/CDU; more line-oriented CDU experiences; and less nonoperational CDU material." (page 26)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: FMS CDU

  57.  
  58. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "One check airman suggested that an incorrect setting of the FRONT CRS knob on the Instrument Landing System (ILS) receiver would cause the aircraft to turn the wrong way on LOC intercept; the aircraft will start turning to the incorrect course, but the ILS signals will eventually cause the aircraft to track the localizer correctly. (One respondent mentioned he felt the ILS receiver was too far from the normal scan pattern, and so an incorrect setting might be missed.) There is also the possibility, mentioned by another check airman, that the appearance of the trend vector and the wind correction both contribute to a perception that the aircraft is turning away from the localizer when it is not." (page 24)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  59.  
  60. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "80% agree that 'pilots who overuse automation will see their flying skills suffer' (#18)." while 15% disagreed with the statement and 6% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 22)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  61.  
  62. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System ... received many favorable, if general, comments about the quality and quantity of information on the display. ... specifically mentioned by several pilots were the explicit display of engine limits as well as the ability to monitor a large number of variables." (page 12)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: EICAS

  63.  
  64. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), or Attitude director Indicator (ADI) and Horizontal situation Indicator (HSI) Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) displays received enthusiastic response. Most of the comments were general in nature, and referred to the information on the displays and the clarity of the displays." (page 10)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: EFIS

  65.  
  66. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Four of the pilots [4%] felt their training was adequate and did not require any changes." (page 16)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  67.  
  68. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "87% agree that they 'hand-fly part of every trip to keep my skills up' (#14)" while 9% disagreed with the statement and 4% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 22)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  69.  
  70. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "Interestingly, this concern for other pilots [who overuse automation and consequently see their flying skills suffer] did not always carry over to themselves because only 63% agreed that 'I am concerned about a possible loss of my flying skills with too much automation' (#31)" while 29% disagreed with the statement and 8% neither agreed nor disagreed. "It is felt, however, that some pilots did not agree with this statement because [italicized by author] they do a lot of hand-flying." (page 22)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  71.  
  72. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "31% ... agreed to some degree that they 'use automatic devices mainly because the company wants me to' (#35)" while 43% slightly or strongly disagreed with the statement, and 27% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 21)
    Issue: company automation policies and procedures may be inappropriate or inadequate (Issue #166) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  73.  
  74. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "Twenty percent of the pilots disagree with the statement 'The new equipment is more reliable than the old' (#29) (45% agreed with the statement, and 35% neither agreed nor disagreed)." (page 21)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  75.  
  76. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "47% agree and 36% disagree, that 'Automation reduces overall workload' (#32)" while 17% neither agree nor disagree with the statement. (page 21)
    Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  77.  
  78. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: (#27) "It is easier to cross-check the other pilot in the 767 than in our other airplanes." 37% of the pilots strongly or slightly agreed, 34% of the pilots strongly or slightly disagreed with the statement, and 30% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 44-45)
    Issue: cross checking may be difficult (Issue #72) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  79.  
  80. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "26% agreed that they 'have serious concerns about the reliability of this new equipment,' and ... the majority disagreed (62%)." (#25) while 13% neither agreed nor disagreed with the statement. (page 22)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  81.  
  82. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: (#26) "Sometimes what the automatics do or don't do takes me by surprise." 26% of the pilots strongly or slightly agreed, 62% of the pilots strongly or slightly disagreed with the statement, and 13% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 44-45)
    Issue: automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (Issue #108) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  83.  
  84. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: (#16) "I can find the exact location of important controls and switches without any hesitation." 58% of the pilots strongly or slightly agreed, 33% of the pilots strongly or slightly disagreed with the statement, and 10% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 44-45)
    Issue: controls of automation may be poorly designed (Issue #37) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation controls

  85.  
  86. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "27% agreed that they were 'worried about sudden failures of the new devices like the FMS computer and the CRT displays' (#9), although the majority, 64%, disagreed with the statement" while 10% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 21)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: FMS

  87.  
  88. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots feel positively about the airplane. More than 86% agreed they 'enjoy flying the 767 more than the older aircraft' (#11)." (page 21)
    Issue: job satisfaction may be reduced (Issue #13) See Issue details
    Strength: -4
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation

  89.  
  90. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: (#19) "The ADI and EHSI displays are always legible and easy to read." 79% of the pilots strongly or slightly agreed, 16% of the pilots strongly or slightly disagreed with the statement, and 5% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 44-45)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: -4
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation displays
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