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Evidence from Resource 4 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Sarter, N.B. & Woods, D.D. (1995). Strong, Silent, and Out-of-the-loop: Properties of Advanced (Cockpit) Automation and Their Impact on Human-Automation Interaction. CSEL Report 95-TR-01.

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  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Experiment
    Evidence: "Further problems with mode awareness were observed in the context of those scenario events that made it difficult but not impossible to anticipate system behavior. In the case of the go-around below 100ft AGL, all pilots failed to anticipate and realize that the autothrust system did not arm when they selected TOGA power. In this case, the pilots had an expectation of system behavior in response to their input. As mentioned by pilots in the debriefing, they all expected the autothrust system to arm because it does so in all other cases where TOGA power is applied." (page 61)
    Issue: mode awareness may be lacking (Issue #95) See Issue details
    Strength: +5
    Aircraft: A320
    Equipment: autoflight: autothrust

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Experiment
    Evidence: "A fairly large number of pilots revealed a lack of system awareness in the context of the following scenario events and probes: a) the NDB faliure, b) the runway change, c) the expedited climb, and d) the go-around situation below 100 ft AGL. Eleven pilots [out of a total of eighteen, 61%] never realized the loss of the NDB signal which normally provides lateral guidance to the automation." (page 60)
    Issue: situation awareness may be reduced (Issue #114) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: A320
    Equipment: automation

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Experiment
    Evidence: "... the overall number of 13 altitude violations is an alarming result. ... Seven pilots [39%] violated an assigned altitude when they reverted to an inappropriate mode from the EXPEDITE CLIMB mode. The problem in these seems to be that the pilot provides an instruction to the automation without realizing the additional unintended implications of his input." (page 61-62)
    Issue: understanding of automation may be inadequate (Issue #105) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: A320
    Equipment: FMS

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Experiment
    Evidence: "... the overall number of 13 altitude violations is an alarming result. Six pilots [33%] failed to detect and recover in time from the loss of previously entered altitude constraints as a consequence of the runway change in the MCDU. ... The problem in these seems to be that the pilot provides an instruction to the automation without realizing the additional unintended implications of his input." (page 61-62)
    Issue: understanding of automation may be inadequate (Issue #105) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: A320
    Equipment: FMS
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