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Evidence from Resource 30 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Rash, C.E., Adam, G.E., LeDuc, P.A., & Francis, G. (May 6-8, 2003). Pilot Attitudes on Glass and Traditional Cockpits in the U.S. Army's AH-64 Apache Helicopter. Presented at the American Helicopter Society 59th Annual Forum, Phoenix, AZ. American Helicopter Society International, Inc.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 24 asked pilots if they agreed that the visual displays/instruments promoted good crew coordination…Among the AH-64D pilots, 51% of the responses were on the agree side of the scale… (page 11)
    Issue: crew coordination problems may occur (Issue #84) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 20 asked pilots if they agreed that the visual displays/instruments contributed to positive crew relationships… Among the AH-64D pilots, 49% of the responses were on the agree side of the scale… (page 9)
    Issue: crew coordination problems may occur (Issue #84) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The AH-64D pilots also commented on the need for an improvement to the FLIR system and that the ORT should be removed and replaced with another MFD. Representative comments from the AH-64D pilots are: … Need a third MPD in front seat of AH-64D. The ORT currently in use is too small of a screen to be easily viewed when on a mission. Also, ORT handles are entirely too "busy." Some of the function buttons should be moved to the third screen bezel. (page 7)
    Issue: controls of automation may be poorly designed (Issue #37) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: Other

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The AH-64D pilots also commented on the need for an improvement to the FLIR system and that the ORT should be removed and replaced with another MFD. Representative comments from the AH-64D pilots are: … Need a third MPD in front seat of AH-64D. The ORT currently in use is too small of a screen to be easily viewed when on a mission. Also, ORT handles are entirely too "busy." Some of the function buttons should be moved to the third screen bezel. (page 7)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation: displays

  9.  
  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The AH-64D pilots also commented on the need for an improvement to the FLIR system and that the ORT should be removed and replaced with another MFD. Representative comments from the AH-64D pilots are: … With only two displays, I tend to feel restricted as to what information is immediately available while in flight, as compared to what is available. (page 7)
    Issue: insufficient information may be displayed (Issue #99) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64A
    Equipment: automation: displays

  11.  
  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The AH-64D pilots also commented on the need for an improvement to the FLIR system and that the ORT should be removed and replaced with another MFD. In addition, several pilots commented on problems with viewing the MFDs and on a need for more permanent representations of some types of data. Representative comments of the AH-64D pilots were: ... Use analog instruments - a circled compass rose is generally missed. I used to just see 45 and 90 degree tick marks on the HSI [horizontal stabilizer indicator] . Now with only a hdg [heading] tape, I have to do the math in my head for traffic pattern work. (page 9)
    Issue: information integration may be required (Issue #9) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: HSI/EHSI

  13.  
  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The AH-64D pilots also commented on the need for an improvement to the FLIR system and that the ORT should be removed and replaced with another MFD. In addition, several pilots commented on problems with viewing the MFDs and on a need for more permanent representations of some types of data. Representative comments of the AH-64D pilots were: ... Use analog instruments - a circled compass rose is generally missed. I used to just see 45 and 90 degree tick marks on the HSI [horizontal stabilizer indicator] . Now with only a hdg [heading] tape, I have to do the math in my head for traffic pattern work. (page 9)
    Issue: insufficient information may be displayed (Issue #99) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: HSI/EHSI

  15.  
  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Many AH-64D pilots reported that an ability see what the other crewmember was looking at on the MFD would help improve crew coordination. Another common comment was that the impetus for good crew coordination was on the crewmembers and not related to the instruments. On the other hand, several pilots commented that the visual displays/instruments in the AH-64D made crew coordination more important than ever because different crewmembers could do very different things at the same time. Representative comments of the AH-64D pilots were: … The designs do not promote crew coordination. The crewmembers must initiate crew coordination. (page 11)
    Issue: crew coordination problems may occur (Issue #84) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  17.  
  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Like the AH-64A pilots, many AH-64D pilots requested a moving map. Other comments also noted that the MFDs tend to make the pilot focus inside the aircraft and that the paging system often required too many button pushes. Representative comments of the AH-64D pilots were: … Seems both crewmembers can get sucked into the MPDs and nobody looking outside. "SA" training can counter this. (page 13)
    Issue: both pilots' attention simultaneously diverted by programming (Issue #75) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  19.  
  20. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Even more so than the AH-64A pilots, the AH-64D comments asked for an accurate computer simulator or emulator. Representative comments of the AH-64D pilots were: … Need to have a mock up for blind cockpit procedures. Split LCT (SIM) periods so they are not back-to-back to allow discussion. Increase flight line flights to 2.0 instead of 1.4 to allow more interactions of tasks in the A/C [aircraft]. (page 15)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: Other

  21.  
  22. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Even more so than the AH-64A pilots, the AH-64D comments asked for an accurate computer simulator or emulator. Representative comments of the AH-64D pilots were: … Better, more accurate home computer emulators, or something in the way of a C- WEPT [Cockpit weapons emergency procedure trainer] type device that students can use without having an IP [instructor pilot] there. (page 15)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: Other

  23.  
  24. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Even more so than the AH-64A pilots, the AH-64D comments asked for an accurate computer simulator or emulator. Representative comments of the AH-64D pilots were: … Have an MPD computer program in the learning center. Create a Longbow TSTT. Have more LCT time; get rid of supplemental course. (page 15)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: Other

  25.  
  26. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Even more so than the AH-64A pilots, the AH-64D comments asked for an accurate computer simulator or emulator. Representative comments of the AH-64D pilots were: … Need a TSTT [TAD (target acquisition designation system) selected task trainer] type device to practice all MPD ops, which include grip and ORT buttons/switches. (page 15)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: Other

  27.  
  28. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Many AH-64D pilots reported that an ability see what the other crewmember was looking at on the MFD would help improve crew coordination. Another common comment was that the impetus for good crew coordination was on the crewmembers and not related to the instruments. On the other hand, several pilots commented that the visual displays/instruments in the AH-64D made crew coordination more important than ever because different crewmembers could do very different things at the same time. Representative comments of the AH-64D pilots were: … Crew coordination is made more difficult because the front seat pilot must devote much time to setting up the battlefield properly, the pilot in the back seat does not see changes as they are happening. (page 11)
    Issue: crew coordination problems may occur (Issue #84) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  29.  
  30. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Even more so than the AH-64A pilots, the AH-64D comments asked for an accurate computer simulator or emulator. Representative comments of the AH-64D pilots were: … We badly need an updated emulator that will work reliably on newer computers, and much greater access to the LCTs [Longbow crew trainer]. (page 15)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: Other

  31.  
  32. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Like the AH-64A pilots, many AH-64D pilots requested a moving map. Other comments also noted that the MFDs tend to make the pilot focus inside the aircraft and that the paging system often required too many button pushes. Representative comments of the AH-64D pilots were: … Too many menus/screen. Actions that used to take only the push of a button now take longer since we are forced to navigate through multiple "pages." (page 13)
    Issue: data entry and programming may be difficult and time consuming (Issue #112) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  33.  
  34. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Like the AH-64A pilots, many AH-64D pilots requested a moving map. Other comments also noted that the MFDs tend to make the pilot focus inside the aircraft and that the paging system often required too many button pushes. Representative comments of the AH-64D pilots were: … Too many menus/screen. Actions that used to take only the push of a button now take longer since we are forced to navigate through multiple "pages." (page 13)
    Issue: interface may be poorly designed (Issue #39) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  35.  
  36. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Figure 12 plots the distributions of responses for question 43, which asked the pilots to rate whether the transition between models with regard to the visual displays/instruments was “Very difficult” (coded as 1) or “Very easy” (coded as 5). There was a slight bias for responses to be on the difficult side of the scale. (page 20)
    Issue: transitioning between aircraft may increase training requirements (Issue #129) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  37.  
  38. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 9 asked pilots to characterize the amount of mental activity involved in working with the visual displays/instruments on a scale between "Very little" (coded as 1) and "Very much" (coded as 5). The opinions of pilots in the AH-64A versus the AH-64D aircraft were dissimilar (U=8580.5, p=0.001). As Figure 2 indicates, the difference seems to be that the AH-64D pilots tended to have more responses toward the "Very much" end of the scale and fewer middle responses than the AH-64A pilots. Quantitatively, &hellip, while only 34% of the AH-64A pilots selected those choices. (page 5)
    Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: AH-64A
    Equipment: automation

  39.  
  40. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 13 asked pilots to indicate whether they agreed that the design of the visual displaysinstruments kept them busier than they needed to be. The opinions of pilots in the AH-64A versus the AH-64D aircraft were dissimilar (U=8991.5, p=0.006). As Figure 2 indicates, the difference seems to be that the AH-64A pilots had most responses in the middle of the scale with a fairly symmetric pattern for the extremes, while the AH-64D pilots had responses skewed to the “Strongly disagree” side of the scale. Among the AH-64D pilots, 45% of the responses were on the disagree side of the scale, while only 29% of the AH-64A pilot chose such responses. (page 7)
    Issue: automation may demand attention (Issue #102) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  41.  
  42. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 13 asked pilots to indicate whether they agreed that the design of the visual displays/instruments kept them busier than they needed to be…Among the AH-64D pilots, 45% of the responses were on the disagree side of the scale… (page 7)
    Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  43.  
  44. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 11 asked pilots to indicate whether they agreed that the visual displays/instruments minimized the time required to perform tasks... Among the AH-64D pilots, 49% chose responses from the agree side of the scale... (page 5)
    Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  45.  
  46. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 23 asked pilots if they agreed that the visual displays/instruments promoted cross monitoring of actions and decisions…Among the AH-64D pilots, 63% of the responses were on the agree side of the scale… (page 11)
    Issue: cross checking may be difficult (Issue #72) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  47.  
  48. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 26 asked pilots if they agreed that the visual displays/instruments helped maintain awareness of the aircraft relative to the flight environment…Among the AH-64D pilots, 73% of the responses were on the agree side of the scale… (page 12)
    Issue: situation awareness may be reduced (Issue #114) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  49.  
  50. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 29 asked pilots if they agreed that the visual displays/instruments allowed them to get the information they needed within an appropriate amount of time…Among the AH-64D pilots, 64% of the responses were on the agree side of the scale… (page 12)
    Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  51.  
  52. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 30 asked pilots if they agreed that the visual displays/instruments allow them to think-ahead of the aircraft…Among the AH-64D pilots, 55% of the responses were on the agree side of the scale… (page 12)
    Issue: planning requirements may be increased (Issue #158) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  53.  
  54. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 12 asked pilots to indicate whether they agreed that the design of the visual displays/instructions was frustrating…Among the AH-64D pilots, 58% chose responses from the disagree side of the scale… (page 6/7)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  55.  
  56. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 22 asked pilots if they agreed that the visual displays/instruments supported free flow of information among crewmembers…Among the AH-64D pilots, 67% of the responses were on the agree side of the scale… (page 11)
    Issue: inter-pilot communication may be reduced (Issue #139) See Issue details
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  57.  
  58. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 28 asked pilots if they agreed that the visual displays/instruments allowed access to all the information that was needed…Among the AH-64D pilots, 81% of the responses were on the agree side of the scale… (page 12)
    Issue: insufficient information may be displayed (Issue #99) See Issue details
    Strength: -4
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation

  59.  
  60. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 31 asked pilots to report how much confidence they placed in the accuracy of the information shown in the visual displays/instruments…Among the AH­64D pilots, 82% of the responses were on the agree side of the scale… (page 12)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: -4
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation
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