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Evidence from Resource 3 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Bruseberg, A. (not dated). Designing for new types of interaction. Department of Computer Science, University of Bath. Available at http://www.cs.bath.ac.uk/~anneb/L11Bruseberg.pdf.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Review Study
    Evidence: Although the information as to what was happening was available from the displays, neither pilot noticed the significant turn, given that they were pre-occupied with other tasks and assumed the instruction to the system had the intended effect. Whilst there is no guarantee that the pilots would have looked at the displays available, the indication of bank on the primary flight display, and the map display (electronic horizontal situation indicator: EHSI) would have been the main source of indication to detect the erroneous course change. It is not known which type of EHSI was selected – however, it would have required some attention to see the gradual progress of the heading change, by memorising and comparing different snapshots. In arc mode, the target bearing may not have been visible since pointing behind the aircraft. (page 4)
    Issue: automation may demand attention (Issue #102) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B757-223
    Equipment: automation: displays

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Review Study
    Evidence: Although the information as to what was happening was available from the displays, neither pilot noticed the significant turn, given that they were pre-occupied with other tasks and assumed the instruction to the system had the intended effect. Whilst there is no guarantee that the pilots would have looked at the displays available, the indication of bank on the primary flight display, and the map display (electronic horizontal situation indicator: EHSI) would have been the main source of indication to detect the erroneous course change. It is not known which type of EHSI was selected – however, it would have required some attention to see the gradual progress of the heading change, by memorising and comparing different snapshots. In arc mode, the target bearing may not have been visible since pointing behind the aircraft. (page 4)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B757-223
    Equipment: automation: displays

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Review Study
    Evidence: A particular problem observed from the Cali Air accident (Accident_Report 1996; Simmon 1998) indicated the need for displaying how much change has happened in a situation where pilots had failed to identify, diagnose, and rectify an erroneous instruction to the Flight Management System. Pilots can instruct the system to an immediate course change by entering a new waypoint using the ‘direct to’ function. After entering and confirming a waypoint code into a keypad, the system then automatically executes the change, having retrieved the corresponding coordinates from a database. The new target heading is calculated by the system. Thus, pilots are not immediately aware of it, unless they check the map display. Moreover, the course change may happen without the pilots being aware of the progress of heading change (i.e. amount of turn). This was a significant contributory factor leading to the Cali air accident, where an erroneous code was entered and lead to a large heading change. The turn remained undetected for a while, and subsequently contributed to a collision with a mountain. (page 4)
    Issue: behavior of automation may not be apparent (Issue #83) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B757-223
    Equipment: automation: displays
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