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Evidence from Resource 19 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Rudisill, M. (1995). Line Pilots' Attitudes About and Experience With Flight Deck Automation: Results of an International Survey and Proposed Guidelines. In R.S. Jensen, & L.A. Rakovan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, Ohio, April 24-27, 1995, 288-293. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Automation may reduce crew airmanship and basic skills, even though, 'Automation has not changed the fundamentals of airmanship. Keeping air under the wings, knowing your position in space, being in the right configuration, are still as important as ever.' Pilots reported a decrease in their handling abilities, a loss of (or change in) scan, and a decrease in navigation/position awareness." (page 8)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Several specific problems were noted with regard to displays and crew interaction with automated systems; for example: map shift; difficulty with airspeed and altitude tapes; information clutter; presentation of engine secondary data; indecipherability of messages (e.g., due to poor wording and poor use of abbreviations); incorrect feedback (e.g., fuel predictions); improper signaling (e.g., of V2 climb-out speed); overall lack of feedback from systems; irrelevance of some displayed data; slow system activation and response time; extreme complexity with failures; and variable reliability and false/spurious warnings or automated systems." (page 5)
    Issue: interface may be poorly designed (Issue #39) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "... there is an overall negative response to the perceived lack of feedback from the fixed autothrust system and auto-trim (e.g., 'the seat of the pants is gone...') and lack of cross-cockpit and autopilot control coupling." (page 5)
    Issue: behavior of automation may not be apparent (Issue #83) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: autoflight: autothrust & autopilot

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Pilots noted that automation requires more self-discipline -- it 'makes things too easy,' and they may find themselves in 'traps' that lead to accidents and incidents. In glass cockpits, it is easier to be 'drawn in' and lose sight of the aircraft; that is, it is easier to become a 'spectator' and lose awareness of ongoing operations." (page 6)
    Issue: pilots may be out of the loop (Issue #2) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  9.  
  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Pilots also reported feeling somewhat isolated or distanced from the physical aircraft. For example, pilots note great difficulty in anticipating aircraft behavior." (page 6)
    Issue: behavior of automation may not be apparent (Issue #83) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  11.  
  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "[Pilots] report that interactions with the FMS, in particular, are very complex. Pilots find FMS programming to be time-consuming and that the automation cannot deal adequately with ATC changes." (page 6)
    Issue: data entry and programming may be difficult and time consuming (Issue #112) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: FMS & ATC

  13.  
  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "[Pilots] report that interactions with the FMS, in particular, are very complex. Pilots find FMS programming to be time-consuming and that the automation cannot deal adequately with ATC changes." (page 6)
    Issue: flightdeck automation may be incompatible with ATC system (Issue #82) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: FMS

  15.  
  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "With regard to trust in automation ... [pilots'] primary concern is that many pilots report observing colleagues who become complacent and rely too much on the automation." (page 7)
    Issue: pilots may be overconfident in automation (Issue #131) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  17.  
  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "... there were specific concerns with automation. Automation may lead to a false sense of security, particularly with inexperienced pilots. ... Pilots believe there is a general temptation to ignore raw information and 'follow the green/magenta line'." (page 5)
    Issue: pilots may be overconfident in automation (Issue #131) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  19.  
  20. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Some [pilots] believe the training philosophy needs to be refocused and that attention should be given to the basics of flying and automation should be placed in this context, instead of concentrating primarily on the automated systems. ... A primary concern expressed is that present training methods may produce an 'era of button-pushers,' not pilots." (page 7)
    Issue: deficiencies in basic aircraft training may exist (Issue #63) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  21.  
  22. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Several specific problems were noted with regard to displays and crew interaction with automated systems; for example: map shift; difficulty with airspeed and altitude tapes; information clutter; presentation of engine secondary data; indecipherability of messages (e.g., due to poor wording and poor use of abbreviations); incorrect feedback (e.g., fuel predictions); improper signaling (e.g., of V2 climb-out speed); overall lack of feedback from systems; irrelevance of some displayed data; slow system activation and response time; extreme complexity with failures; and variable reliability and false/spurious warnings or automated systems." (page 5)
    Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  23.  
  24. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "With regard to trust in automation ... [pilots'] primary concern is that many pilots report observing colleagues who become complacent and rely too much on the automation." (page 7)
    Issue: pilots may over-rely on automation (Issue #106) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  25.  
  26. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Automation may reduce crew airmanship and basic skills, even though, 'Automation has not changed the fundamentals of airmanship. Keeping air under the wings, knowing your position in space, being in the right configuration, are still as important as ever.' Pilots reported a decrease in their handling abilities, a loss of (or change in) scan, and a decrease in navigation/position awareness." (page 8)
    Issue: scan pattern may change (Issue #38) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  27.  
  28. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Experienced pilots maintain that training pressures may not allow the development of basic piloting skills and also note that inexperienced pilots appear less aware of such flight fundamentals as airspeed, altitudes, and naviagation." (page 8)
    Issue: manual skills may not be acquired (Issue #7) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  29.  
  30. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Comments were decomposed into five categories relating to: (1) general observations with regard to flight deck automation; comments concerning the (2) design and (3) crew understanding of automation and the crew interface; (4) crew operations with automation; and (5) personal factors affecting crew/automation interaction." In analyzing the personal factors affecting crew/automation interaction, the following was found: "Experienced pilots maintain that training pressures may not allow the development of basic piloting skills and also note that inexperienced pilots appear less aware of such flight fundamentals as airspeed, altitudes, and naviagation." (page 8)
    Issue: deficiencies in basic aircraft training may exist (Issue #63) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  31.  
  32. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "With regard to trust in automation, pilots have some reservations. They report good, but variable, reliability, i.e., some automated systems are reliable; others are not." (page 7)
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  33.  
  34. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Several specific problems were noted with regard to displays and crew interaction with automated systems; for example: map shift; difficulty with airspeed and altitude tapes; information clutter; presentation of engine secondary data; indecipherability of messages (e.g., due to poor wording and poor use of abbreviations); incorrect feedback (e.g., fuel predictions); improper signaling (e.g., of V2 climb-out speed); overall lack of feedback from systems; irrelevance of some displayed data; slow system activation and response time; extreme complexity with failures; and variable reliability and false/spurious warnings or automated systems." (page 5)
    Issue: false alarms may be frequent (Issue #70) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  35.  
  36. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Many pilots noted that the initial training program was very difficult and they felt unprepared for their first unsupervised flight. Insufficient information was provided concerning the actual aircraft and its systems, making it difficult to assess potential problems. They wished for more hands-on practice and more simulator time, to consolidate their knowledge." (page 7)
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  37.  
  38. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Pilots believe that automated aircraft are generally less stressful and less fatiguing to fly" (page 8)
    Issue: fatigue may be induced (Issue #156) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
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