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Evidence from Resource 12 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Sherman, P.J., Helmreich, R.L., & Merritt, A. (1997). National culture and flight deck automation: Results of a multination survey. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 7(4), 311-329. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "In order to identify what kinds of problems occur in automated aircraft, a review of accident and incident reports from a number of European and US sources was completed. Reports were selected on the basis of keyword searches for terms relating to human factors, training and automation, and were then classified using a taxonomy developed in ECOTTRIS to identify various operational, behavioural, design contributory and general automation factors. Analysis of frequency of factors and linkages between factors was carried out and yielded the following results: deficiency in CRM was a contributory factor in incidents and accidents (identified in 39% of all reports) and this could be linked with incorrect settings, monitoring and vigilance, inadequate knowledge of aircraft systems, experience and flight handling. Furthermore, complacency was found in 13% of reports and improper use of systems occurred in 15% of reports. In this part of the study, mode awareness was identified as a factor in only 6% of reports."
    Issue: crew coordination problems may occur (Issue #84) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Another issue found was that airlines use different Standard Operating Procedures. Some prescribe the use of automatic systems whereas other leave it to the discretion of the crew. The overall trend is to use the automatic systems. This strategy is fuelled by the fact that automatic systems allow more economic flight handling. The reliability and performance of these systems is also an important consideration. An example is the increase of the prescriptive nature of auto pilot usage in non-normal and/or emergency conditions. However, 34% of the pilots also reported that the use of some autopilot modes were prohibited by their airline, again indicating that airlines use the aircraft differently than initially designed for and make a selective use of the original design capabilities."
    Issue: company automation policies and procedures may be inappropriate or inadequate (Issue #166) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: autoflight: autopilot

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "In order to identify what kinds of problems occur in automated aircraft, a review of accident and incident reports from a number of European and US sources was completed. Reports were selected on the basis of keyword searches for terms relating to human factors, training and automation, and were then classified using a taxonomy developed in ECOTTRIS to identify various operational, behavioural, design contributory and general automation factors. "Analysis of frequency of factors and linkages between factors was carried out and yielded the following results: deficiency in CRM was a contributory factor in incidents and accidents (identified in 39% of all reports) and this could be linked with incorrect settings, monitoring and vigilance, inadequate knowledge of aircraft systems, experience and flight handling. Furthermore, complacency was found in 13% of reports and improper use of systems occurred in 15% of reports. In this part of the study, mode awareness was identified as a factor in only 6% of reports."
    Issue: mode awareness may be lacking (Issue #95) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "In order to identify what kinds of problems occur in automated aircraft, a review of accident and incident reports from a number of European and US sources was completed. Reports were selected on the basis of keyword searches for terms relating to human factors, training and automation, and were then classified using a taxonomy developed in ECOTTRIS to identify various operational, behavioural, design contributory and general automation factors. "Analysis of frequency of factors and linkages between factors was carried out and yielded the following results: deficiency in CRM was a contributory factor in incidents and accidents (identified in 39% of all reports) and this could be linked with incorrect settings, monitoring and vigilance, inadequate knowledge of aircraft systems, experience and flight handling. Furthermore, complacency was found in 13% of reports and improper use of systems occurred in 15% of reports. In this part of the study, mode awareness was identified as a factor in only 6% of reports."
    Issue: understanding of automation may be inadequate (Issue #105) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  9.  
  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Fifty eight structured interviews were conducted at a number of European airlines to enable pilots and training instructors to comment on current transition training practices, to give levels of understanding of various automated systems and express their views on automation and related issues… Pilots attitudes towards the automation were generally positive. Surprises caused by the automation tended to occur especially early after training, as did human errors due to negative transfer. In cases where pilots were surprised, they admitted that it did influence their trust in the aircraft. Comments suggested that a higher level of understanding of systems, better problem solving skills and prioritisation rules to avoid excessive head-down time, could mitigate negative effects of difficult situations."
    Issue: understanding of automation may be inadequate (Issue #105) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  11.  
  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Fifty eight structured interviews were conducted at a number of European airlines to enable pilots and training instructors to comment on current transition training practices, to give levels of understanding of various automated systems and express their views on automation and related issues… Pilots attitudes towards the automation were generally positive. Surprises caused by the automation tended to occur especially early after training, as did human errors due to negative transfer. In cases where pilots were surprised, they admitted that it did influence their trust in the aircraft. Comments suggested that a higher level of understanding of systems, better problem solving skills and prioritisation rules to avoid excessive head-down time, could mitigate negative effects of difficult situations."
    Issue: automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (Issue #108) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  13.  
  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Over the full range of skills that were investigated, a substantial percentage of the investigated pilot population expressed a need for extra training…ranking of seven different skill groups with respect to need/priority for extra training 1) knowledge of automation 2) decision making 3) crew resource management 4)manual flying 5)determination of appropriate SOP's 6) standard cockpit handling 7)knowledge of SOP's." Note: this information is depicted in table format in the document.
    Issue: understanding of automation may be inadequate (Issue #105) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  15.  
  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Over the full range of skills that were investigated, a substantial percentage of the investigated pilot population expressed a need for extra training…ranking of seven different skill groups with respect to need/priority for extra training 1) knowledge of automation 2) decision making 3) crew resource management 4)manual flying 5)determination of appropriate SOP's 6) standard cockpit handling 7)knowledge of SOP's." Note: this information is depicted in table format in the document.
    Issue: deficiencies in basic aircraft training may exist (Issue #63) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  17.  
  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Fifty eight structured interviews were conducted at a number of European airlines to enable pilots and training instructors to comment on current transition training practices, to give levels of understanding of various automated systems and express their views on automation and related issues… Pilots attitudes towards the automation were generally positive. Surprises caused by the automation tended to occur especially early after training, as did human errors due to negative transfer. In cases where pilots were surprised, they admitted that it did influence their trust in the aircraft. Comments suggested that a higher level of understanding of systems, better problem solving skills and prioritisation rules to avoid excessive head-down time, could mitigate negative effects of difficult situations."
    Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  19.  
  20. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Fifty eight structured interviews were conducted at a number of European airlines to enable pilots and training instructors to comment on current transition training practices, to give levels of understanding of various automated systems and express their views on automation and related issues. The results suggested inter alia. that specific pre-course preparation is not common, often pilots finish flying their old aircraft, only days before the course starts, limiting their time for preparation. The interviews also suggested that the courses spent very little time on highlighting the differences and similarities between old and new aircraft. Ensuring that pilots are aware of differences, improves the pilots’ knowledge and understanding both during and after the course and reduces risks for negative transfer of habits or strategies." "Pilots attitudes towards the automation were generally positive. Surprises caused by the automation tended to occur especially early after training, as did human errors due to negative transfer. In cases where pilots were surprised, they admitted that it did influence their trust in the aircraft. Comments suggested that a higher level of understanding of systems, better problem solving skills and prioritisation rules to avoid excessive head-down time, could mitigate negative effects of difficult situations."
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  21.  
  22. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Over the full range of skills that were investigated, a substantial percentage of the investigated pilot population expressed a need for extra training…ranking of seven different skill groups with respect to need/priority for extra training 1) knowledge of automation 2) decision making 3) crew resource management 4)manual flying 5)determination of appropriate SOP's 6) standard cockpit handling 7)knowledge of SOP's." Note: this information is depicted in table format in the document.
    Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation

  23.  
  24. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "In order to identify what kinds of problems occur in automated aircraft, a review of accident and incident reports from a number of European and US sources was completed. Reports were selected on the basis of keyword searches for terms relating to human factors, training and automation, and were then classified using a taxonomy developed in ECOTTRIS to identify various operational, behavioural, design contributory and general automation factors. "Analysis of frequency of factors and linkages between factors was carried out and yielded the following results: deficiency in CRM was a contributory factor in incidents and accidents (identified in 39% of all reports) and this could be linked with incorrect settings, monitoring and vigilance, inadequate knowledge of aircraft systems, experience and flight handling. Furthermore, complacency was found in 13% of reports and improper use of systems occurred in 15% of reports. In this part of the study, mode awareness was identified as a factor in only 6% of reports."
    Issue: pilots may be overconfident in automation (Issue #131) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation
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