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Evidence from Resource 18 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Gras, A., Moricot, C., et. al. (1994). Faced with automation. Publications de la Sorbonne.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.64. In your opinion what are the designers' chief preoccupations? (Maximum three answers)" 79.4% of the respondents answered "Resolving economic issues/profitability of the firm". (page 38)
    Issue: commercial incentives may dominate (Issue #127) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.33. Do you feel that you always understand your aircraft's systems and interactions?" 79.2% of the respondents answered 'No', 19.5% answered 'Yes' and 1.3% gave no response. (page 31)
    Issue: understanding of automation may be inadequate (Issue #105) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.44. When interfacing have you ever felt or experienced difficulty in dialoguing with systems or in following automation logic?" 77.9% of the respondents answered 'Yes', 19.9% answered 'No' and 2.1% gave no response. (page 34)
    Issue: interface may be poorly designed (Issue #39) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation: interface

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.58. If somebody says to you <>, do you ..." 13.8% of the respondents answered either 'Absolutely agree' or 'Rather agree', 75.1% answered 'Absolutely disagree' or 'Rather disagree', and 11.1% answered 'Neither yes nor no' or gave no response. (page 37)
    Issue: human-centered design philosophy may be lacking (Issue #100) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  9.  
  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.62. Do you think that airline pilots and designers dialogue sufficiently with each other?" 6.6% of the respondents answered either 'yes, they definately dialogue with each other' or 'yes, with some reservations', 84.4% answered 'No, not at all' or 'No, not sufficiently', and 9.0% answered 'Neither yes nor no' or gave no response. (page 38)
    Issue: operational knowledge may be lacking in design process (Issue #121) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  11.  
  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.59. Do you feel that aircraft designers' logic differs from pilot-users' logic?" 88.0% of the respondents answered either 'yes, absolutely' or 'yes, on the whole', 4.8% answered 'No, not at all' or 'No, on the whole not', and 7.2% answered 'Neither yes nor no' or gave no response. (page 37)
    Issue: automation may use different control strategies than pilots (Issue #122) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  13.  
  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.53. Have you ever experienced situations in which automated equipment acted against your intentions?" 66.9% of the respondents answered 'Yes', 31.5% answered 'No' and 1.6% gave no response. (page 36)
    Issue: automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (Issue #108) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  15.  
  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.37. Are you afraid of losing some manual dexterity through automation?" 58.9% of the respondents anwered 'Yes', 40.0% answered 'No.' and 1.1% gave no response. (page 31)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  17.  
  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Automatic devices tend rather to reduce communication between crew members for 49% of pilots (half of them); 27.8% gave no opinion while 22.7% believe, on the contrary, that communication is enhanced by automation (Q.15). ... Q.15. Do you think that automation improves or reduces communication between crew members?" (page 25-26)
    Issue: inter-pilot communication may be reduced (Issue #139) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  19.  
  20. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.48. Do you feel that the machine is holding useful information but fails to provide it when you need it?" 48.7% of the respondents answered either 'yes, often' or 'yes, sometimes', 32.5% answered 'No, hardly ever' or 'No, never', and 18.8% answered 'Neither yes nor no' or gave no response. (page 35)
    Issue: insufficient information may be displayed (Issue #99) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: FMS

  21.  
  22. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.33. Do you feel that you always understand your aircraft's systems and interactions?" 79.2% of the respondents answered 'No', 19.5% answered 'Yes' and 1.3% made no response. (page 31)
    Issue: understanding of automation may be inadequate (Issue #105) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  23.  
  24. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Automatic devices tend rather to reduce communication between crew members for 49% of pilots (half of them); 27.8% gave no opinion while 22.7% believe, on the contrary, that communication is enhanced by automation (Q.15). ... Q.15. Do you think that automation improves or reduces communication between crew members?" (page 25-26)
    Issue: inter-pilot communication may be reduced (Issue #139) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  25.  
  26. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.62. Do you think that airline pilots and designers dialogue sufficiently with each other?" 6.6% of the respondents answered either 'yes, they definately dialogue with each other' or 'yes, with some reservations', 84.4% answered 'No, not at all' or 'No, not sufficiently', and 9.0% answered 'Neither yes nor no' or gave no response. (page 38)
    Issue: operational knowledge may be lacking in design process (Issue #121) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  27.  
  28. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.44. When interfacing have you ever felt or experienced difficulty in dialoguing with systems or in following automation logic?" 77.9% of the respondents answered 'Yes' , 19.9% answered 'No', and 2.1% gave no response. (page 34)
    Issue: interface may be poorly designed (Issue #39) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation: interface

  29.  
  30. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.58. If somebody says to you 'When designing an airplane the engineers take into account the needs of the users, i.e. the pilots', do you ..." 13.8% of the respondents answered either 'Absolutely agree' or 'Rather agree', 75.1% answered 'Absolutely disagree' or 'Rather disagree', and 11.1% answered 'Neither yes nor no' or gave no response. (page 37)
    Issue: human-centered design philosophy may be lacking (Issue #100) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  31.  
  32. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.37. Are you afraid of losing some manual dexterity through automation?" 58.9% of the respondents anwered 'Yes', 40.0% answered 'No.' and 1.1% gave no response. (page 31)
    Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation

  33.  
  34. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.48. Do you feel that the machine is holding useful information but fails to provide it when you need it?" 48.7% of the respondents answered either 'yes, often' or 'yes, sometimes', 32.5% answered 'No, hardly ever' or 'No, never', and 18.8% answered 'Neither yes nor no' or gave no response. (page 35)
    Issue: insufficient information may be displayed (Issue #99) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: FMS

  35.  
  36. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.53. Have you ever experienced situations in which automated equipment acted against your intentions?" 66.9% of the respondents answered 'Yes', 31.5% answered 'No', and 1.6% gave no response. (page 36)
    Issue: automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (Issue #108) See Issue details
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
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