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Evidence from Resource 10 pieces of evidence from this resource.

National Transportation Safety Board (1998). In-Flight Icing Encounter and Uncontrolled Collision with Terrain, COMAIR Flight 3272, Embraer EMB-120RT, N265CA, Monroe, Michigan, January 9, 1997. Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR-98/04. Washington, DC: National Transportation Safety Board.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: Had the pilots been flying the airplane manually (without the autopilot engaged) they likely would have noted the increased right-wing-down control wheel force needed to maintain the desired left bank, become aware of the airplane’s altered performance characteristics, and increased their airspeed or otherwise altered their flight situation to avoid the loss of control. Disengagement of the autopilot during all operations in icing conditions is necessary to enable pilots to sense the aerodynamic effects of icing and enhance their ability to retain control of the airplane. (page 178)
    Issue: pilots may be out of the loop (Issue #2) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: Embraer EMB-120RT
    Equipment:

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: Had the pilots been flying the airplane manually (without the autopilot engaged) they likely would have noted the increased right-wing-down control wheel force needed to maintain the desired left bank, become aware of the airplane’s altered performance characteristics, and increased their airspeed or otherwise altered their flight situation to avoid the loss of control. Disengagement of the autopilot during all operations in icing conditions is necessary to enable pilots to sense the aerodynamic effects of icing and enhance their ability to retain control of the airplane. (page 178)
    Issue: situation awareness may be reduced (Issue #114) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: Embraer EMB-120RT
    Equipment:

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: The stall warning system installed in the accident airplane did not provide an adequate warning to the pilots because ice contamination was present on the airplane’s airfoils, and the system was not designed to account for aerodynamic degradation or adjust its warning to compensate for the reduced stall warning margin caused by the ice. (page 178)
    Issue: automation may lack reasonable functionality (Issue #109) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: Embraer EMB-120RT
    Equipment:

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: Because the pilots of Comair flight 3272 were operating the airplane with the autopilot engaged during a series of descents, right and left turns, power adjustments, and airspeed reductions, they might not have perceived the airplane’s gradually deteriorating performance. (page 145)
    Issue: situation awareness may be reduced (Issue #114) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: Embraer EMB-120RT
    Equipment:

  9.  
  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: Because the pilots of Comair flight 3272 were operating the airplane with the autopilot engaged during a series of descents, right and left turns, power adjustments, and airspeed reductions, they might not have perceived the airplane’s gradually deteriorating performance. (page 145)
    Issue: pilots may be out of the loop (Issue #2) See Issue details
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: Embraer EMB-120RT
    Equipment:

  11.  
  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: Require all operators of turbopropeller-driven air carrier airplanes to require pilots to disengage the autopilot and fly the airplane manually when they activate the anti-ice systems. (A-98-97) (page 183)
    Issue: pilots may be out of the loop (Issue #2) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: Embraer EMB-120RT
    Equipment:

  13.  
  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: Require all operators of turbopropeller-driven air carrier airplanes to require pilots to disengage the autopilot and fly the airplane manually when they activate the anti-ice systems. (A-98-97) (page 183)
    Issue: situation awareness may be reduced (Issue #114) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: Embraer EMB-120RT
    Equipment:

  15.  
  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: Require the manufacturers and operators of all airplanes that are certificated to operate in icing conditions to install stall warning/protection systems that provide a cockpit warning (aural warning and/or stick shaker) before the onset of stall when the airplane is operating in icing conditions. (A-98-96) (page 183)
    Issue: automation may lack reasonable functionality (Issue #109) See Issue details
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: Embraer EMB-120RT
    Equipment:

  17.  
  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: Require all manufacturers of transport-category airplanes to incorporate logic into all new and existing transport-category airplanes that have autopilots installed to provide a cockpit aural warning to alert pilots when the airplane’s bank and/or pitch exceeds the autopilot’s maximum bank and/or pitch command limits. (A-98-98) (page 183)
    Issue: automation may lack reasonable functionality (Issue #109) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: Embraer EMB-120RT
    Equipment:

  19.  
  20. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: If the pilots of Comair flight 3272 had received a ground proximity warning system, autopilot, or other system-generated cockpit warning when the airplane first exceeded the autopilot’s maximum bank command limits with the autopilot activated, they might have been able to avoid the unusual attitude condition that resulted from the autopilot’s sudden disengagement. (page 179)
    Issue: automation may lack reasonable functionality (Issue #109) See Issue details
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: Embraer EMB-120RT
    Equipment:
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