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Evidence from Resource 2 pieces of evidence from this resource.

Wiener, E.L. Chidester, T.R., Kanki, B.G., Palmer, E.A., Curry, R.E., & Gregorich, S.E. (1991). The Impact of Cockpit Automation on Crew Coordination and Communication: I. Overview, LOFT Evaluations, Error Severity, and questionnaire data. NASA Contractor Report 177587.

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  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: In response to the open-ended "Question 1. Describe in detail an error which you made, or observed, in the DC-9/MD-88 that could have led to an incident or violation. How could it have been avoided? (equipment design? Training? crew coordination?). Please describe specifically what occurred?" One pilot responded by describing a situation involving a DC-9 altitude deviation, "While cruising at 31,000 the autopilot was inadvertently turned off or kicked off by itself and the A/C began a slow descent. We noticed it at about 250 feet below our assigned altitude. 48" (page 70, 75)
    Issue: inadvertent autopilot disengagement may be too easy (Issue #123) See Issue details
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: MD88 & DC9
    Equipment: autoflight: autopilot

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  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 14: "Automation does not reduce total workload." From the histograph of the responses, 21 of the 31 [68%] MD-88 pilots agreed or strongly agreed with the statement, 10 [32%] disagreed or strongly disagreed, and none of the MD-88 gave a neutral response. These results can be compared to the responses of the DC-9 pilots. 32 of the 42 [77%] DC-9 pilots agreed or strongly agreed with the statement, 6 [14%] disagreed or strongly disagreed, and 4 [9%] gave a neutral response. Combining these two groups reveals that 53 of the 73 [73%] pilots agreed or strongly agreed with the statement, 16 [22%] disagreed or strongly disagreed, and 4 [5%] gave a neutral response. (page 61)
    Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79) See Issue details
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: MD88 & DC9
    Equipment: automation
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