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Source: Speyer, J.J., Fort, A., Fouillot, J.P., & Blomberg, R.D. (1987). Assessing pilot workload for minimum crew certification. The Practical Assessment of Pilot Workload, 90-115. AGARDograph No. 282. London: North Atlantic Treaty Organization Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development.
Source Type:   Experiment
Synopsis: "The static taskload method allows an objective quantitative task analysis of system management procedures that attempts to quantify the ergonomic aspects (visibility, observability, accessibility, operability, monitorability of control and displays) of the man-machine interface of a new aircraft through a direct comparison of procedures with a previously certificated two-person aircraft. It provides quantitative taskload data or in other words objective indications of individual crewmember task demand by measuring the impact of a new cockpit layout, the location and nature of controls and indicators in comparison with a former cockpit layout. After selecting a series of comparable normal, abnormal and emergency procedures each of these procedures is analysed individually for both aircraft. Each task in a given procedure is split into 6 basic actions i.e. look, observe, monitor, reach, operate and monitor (the result of the operation) ... Each action is linked with a feasibility index which expresses the elementary difficulty to accomplish this action. These visibility, observability, accessibility, operability, monitorability indices are intimately linked with the cockpit layout or hardware. They are expressed in terms of values on a continuous difficulty scale ranging from 0 to 1, the static taskload scale... [This paper discusses] the A300FF minimum crew certification [in which] the Static Taskload Analysis was comparatively applied to the A300FF and the MCDONNELL DOUGLAS DC-9. ... Comparable normal, abnormal and emergency procedures were selected ... This involved at least 10 normal procedures and 10 abnormal/emergency procedures. ... Task analyses of system management activities were performed for each crew member of each aircraft with a task breakdown into basic actions (look, observe, monitor, reach, operate and monitor) CM1 (or the left hand seated pilot) being PF, CM2 acting as PNF; the task analyses of the A300FF ... [was] conducted in [a mockup]; .... the task analyses of the ... [DC-9 was] conducted in a flight simulator with the assistance of a type rated flight instructor. ... Geometric, time and mechanical measurements from cockpit drawings, mock-up and simulators were used to calculate parameters that are considered in mathematical models of ergonomic feasibility laws. ... Feasibility indices for each action of a task are calculated by means of the mathematical models of each type of action. ... Taskload matrices were compiled for each procedure so that comparisons could be made between the aircraft under evaluation and the reference aircraft, initial results for each crewmember (CM1 or CM2) and for each procedure are expressed in terms of Burden and Weighed Average Taskload; Burden gives a measurement of the overall amount of work demanded for executing a particular procedure, whereas Weighted Average Taskload gives as idea of the average degree of difficulty generated y the execution of a procedure. ... Histogrammic plots of Burden and weighted average taskload for each crewmember were drawn allowing to take first hand conclusions."
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