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Source: Petridis, R.S., Lyall, E.A., & Robideau, R.L. (1995). The effects of flight deck automation on verbal flight-relevant communication. In R.S. Jensen, & L.A. Rakovan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, Ohio, April 24-27, 1995, 216-220. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University.
Source Type:   Experiment
Synopsis: In this study, pilots flew one of four different types of aircraft, each having a different levels of automation: B737-200, B737-200-177, B737-300A, and B737-300E. "Pilot activities were recorded throughout 20 three-day trips. [Pilots flew one of four different Boeing aircrafts. The trips averaged 10 departures and arrivals (10 legs of flight) over the three days. For each leg, data were recorded for the period after leaving the gate until leveling off at cruise altitude, and then throughout the descent after leaving cruise altitude until reaching the destination gate. (The cruise portion was not included to keep the length of time in which data were gathered similar across flights.) The activities in which each pilot was engaged were sampled every 7.5 seconds by visual observation, then coded on the data sheet. Up to four codes were recorded at any one time, they included what the pilots were looking at, what they were doing with their hands, whether or not they were speaking, and whether they were performing some global task such as flying the aircraft or communicating with Air Traffic Control. Each activity was coded with one of a possible 65 codes. ... A 4 x 2 x 2 x 4 mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze effects of automation level, position, duty, and flight segment on the percentage of flight-relevant verbal communication."
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