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Source: Mumaw, R.J., Sarter, N.B., & Wickens, C.D. (2001). Analysis of Pilots' Monitoring and Performance on an Automated Flight Deck. In Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University..
Source Type:   Experiment
Synopsis: "In order to understand the role of pilot monitoring in the loss of mode awareness on automated flight decks, we studied 20 Boeing 747-400 line pilots in a simulated flight. We developed a set of scenario events that created challenges to monitoring. We measured automation use, eye fixations, and pilot mental models...We recruited twenty 747-400 line pilots (10 Captains and 10 First Officers; all male) from two U.S. airlines. Ages ranged from 45-59, with a mean age of 53.3. Pilots had between 100 and 9000 hours on the 747-400 (mean=2600; SD=2100), and they had a minimum of 1000 hours total of glass cockpit experience. Pilots were not paid for their participation...The study was carried out in a 747-400 fixed-base simulator. Each pilot’s front window view covered 45° horizontally and 34° vertically, with a 2° look-down angle. Pilots were encouraged to use flight deck automation (i.e., to not fly manually) until they descended to about 5000 ft, and then a visual approach." "
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