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Source: Lin, H.X. & Salvendy, G. (2000). Warning effect on human error reduction. International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics, 4(2), 145-161.
Source Type:   Experiment
Synopsis: "In this study, we test whether warnings reduce human error by helping participants to transit from lower performance level to higher performance level. In this study, warnings are those that indicate possible unfavorable outcomes but do not include knowledge of how to perform a task. These warnings are a specific class of warnings and not inclusive of other kinds of warnings that may inform, instruct, and give direct general and specific information. Warnings in this study are not hazard warnings as they are usually investigated in warnings research. More general discussion of warnings can be found in Ayres et al. (1989). If warnings reduce human error by helping participants transit from lower performance level to higher performance level, participants who have high conceptual knowledge level will benefit more from such warnings than participants who have low conceptual knowledge level. This is because participants have to know how to respond to these warnings after they transit to a higher performance level. Because high knowledge participants have more knowledge than low knowledge participants, high knowledge participants know better how to respond to such warnings than low knowledge participants. However, this does not necessarily mean that such warnings reduce more absolute numbers of errors for high knowledge participants than for low knowledge participants. Without warnings, high knowledge participants may make fewer errors than low knowledge participants. With warnings, we would expect that high knowledge participants’ relative human error reduction due to participants’ use of warnings will be higher than that of low knowledge participants."
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