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All Issues 94 issues found.


  1.  
  2. Issue: automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (Issue #108)
    Description: Automation may perform in ways that are unintended, unexpected, and perhaps unexplainable by pilots, possibly creating confusion, increasing pilot workload to compensate, and sometimes leading to unsafe conditions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  3.  
  4. Issue: automation information in manuals may be inadequate (Issue #140)
    Description: Manuals provided to pilots may contain incomplete, unclear, or erroneous information about automation, possibly leading to poor pilot performance.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  5.  
  6. Issue: automation integration may be poor (Issue #11)
    Description: The lack of integration of automation systems may increase pilot workload.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  7.  
  8. Issue: automation level decisions may be difficult (Issue #103)
    Description: It may be difficult for pilots to decide what levels of automation are appropriate in specific circumstances, possibly increasing pilot workload.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  9.  
  10. Issue: automation may adversely affect pilot workload (Issue #79)
    Description: Automation may increase overall pilot workload, or increase pilot workload at high workload times and reduce pilot workload at low workload times, possibly resulting in excess workload and/or boredom.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  11.  
  12. Issue: automation may be over-emphasized in pilot evaluation (Issue #116)
    Description: In pilot evaluation there may be an overemphasis on automation skills to the extent that manual and non-automation-related cognitive skills are minimized. Pilots may therefore lack non-automated operations skills.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  13.  
  14. Issue: automation may be too complex (Issue #40)
    Description: Automation may be too complex in that it may consist of many interrelated components and may operate under many different modes. This makes automation difficult for pilots to understand and use safely.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  15.  
  16. Issue: automation may demand attention (Issue #102)
    Description: The attentional demands of pilot-automation interaction may significantly interfere with performance of safety-critical tasks. (e.g., "head-down time", distractions, etc.)
    See all Evidence for this issue

  17.  
  18. Issue: automation may lack reasonable functionality (Issue #109)
    Description: Automation design may prevent the device from performing a function that seems reasonable to the pilot, possibly requiring the use of alternative strategies which may increase workload and the opportunity for error.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  19.  
  20. Issue: automation may not work well under unusual conditions (Issue #150)
    Description: Automation may work well under normal conditions but, due to design limitations, not have the desired behavior under unusual conditions, such as those close to the margins of its operating envelope. This can lead to unsafe conditions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  21.  
  22. Issue: automation may use different control strategies than pilots (Issue #122)
    Description: Automation may use a different strategy of control or control logic than the pilot, possibly leading to the pilot's loss of situation awareness and pilot errors.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  23.  
  24. Issue: automation performance may be limited (Issue #126)
    Description: The ability of the automation to perform correctly and quickly may be limited by design constraints, possibly increasing pilot workload and the opportunity for error.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  25.  
  26. Issue: automation requirements may conflict (Issue #160)
    Description: Satisfaction of one automation functional or certification requirement may lead to the violation of another.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  27.  
  28. Issue: automation skills may be lost (Issue #137)
    Description: Prolonged absence from advanced technology aircraft may result in a loss of automation use skills, possibly resulting in poor pilot performance when pilots return to advanced technology aircraft.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  29.  
  30. Issue: automation use may be vulnerable to cockpit distractions (Issue #171)
    Description: Distractions in the cockpit may lead to disruptions in control or monitoring of automation.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  31.  
  32. Issue: automation use may slow pilot responses (Issue #161)
    Description: When using automation, pilot response to unanticipated events and clearances may be slower than it would be under manual control, possibly increasing the likelihood of unsafe conditions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  33.  
  34. Issue: automation use philosophy may be lacking (Issue #101)
    Description: There may be no comprehensive, coherent philosophy provided to pilots for the use of automation, possibly resulting in inconsistencies and uncertainties in its use.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  35.  
  36. Issue: behavior of automation may not be apparent (Issue #83)
    Description: The behavior of automation devices -- what they are doing now and what they will do in the future based upon pilot input or other factors -- may not be apparent to pilots, possibly resulting in reduced pilot awareness of automation behavior and goals.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  37.  
  38. Issue: both pilots' attention simultaneously diverted by programming (Issue #75)
    Description: Both pilots may become involved in programming duties simultaneously, possibly diverting the attention of both pilots from safety-critical tasks.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  39.  
  40. Issue: commercial incentives may dominate (Issue #127)
    Description: The fundamental reasons for the increasing use of automation may be to decrease the cost of flight operations. If these considerations receive excessive emphasis in the aircraft design process, safety may be compromised.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  41.  
  42. Issue: communication between computers may be unsupervised (Issue #22)
    Description: There may be potential hazards caused by computer-to-computer communication when human supervision and intervention is difficult or impossible.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  43.  
  44. Issue: company automation policies and procedures may be inappropriate or inadequate (Issue #166)
    Description: Company policies and procedures for the use of automation may be inappropriate or inadequate in some circumstances, possibly compelling pilots to use automation when they prefer not to and/or leading to pilot confusion or frustration.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  45.  
  46. Issue: complex automation may have overly simplistic interface (Issue #128)
    Description: Simplified pilot-automation interfaces may hide important complexities, possibly leading to unexpected behaviors and difficulty performing complex operations.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  47.  
  48. Issue: controls of automation may be poorly designed (Issue #37)
    Description: Automation controls may be designed so they are difficult to access and activate quickly and accurately, or easy to activate inadvertently.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  49.  
  50. Issue: crew assignment may be inappropriate (Issue #142)
    Description: When two pilots with little automation experience are assigned to an advanced technology aircraft, errors related to automation use may be more likely.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  51.  
  52. Issue: crew coordination problems may occur (Issue #84)
    Description: The use of automation may adversely affect crew coordination, possibly leading to unsafe conditions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  53.  
  54. Issue: cross checking may be difficult (Issue #72)
    Description: It may be difficult for one pilot to monitor what another is doing with automation, possibly reducing awareness of pilot intentions and cross checking for errors.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  55.  
  56. Issue: cultural differences may not be considered (Issue #165)
    Description: Cultural differences may not be adequately considered in automation design, training, certification, and operations. If they are not considered, they may have resulting effects on performance and how automation is used.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  57.  
  58. Issue: data access may be difficult (Issue #47)
    Description: It may be difficult to access data "hidden" in the architecture of the automation system, possibly increasing pilot workload.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  59.  
  60. Issue: data entry and programming may be difficult and time consuming (Issue #112)
    Description: Procedures for data entry and programming automation may be unclear, overly difficult, complex, and time consuming. This may cause errors and delays that may lead to unsafe conditions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  61.  
  62. Issue: data entry errors on keyboards may occur (Issue #71)
    Description: Keyboard alphanumeric data entry may be prone to errors, which may adversely affect safety.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  63.  
  64. Issue: data presentation may be too abstract (Issue #87)
    Description: Data presented in integrated/processed/simplified forms may not fully support effective pilot decision making and pilots may lose sight of raw data..
    See all Evidence for this issue

  65.  
  66. Issue: data re-entry may be required (Issue #49)
    Description: Data entries may not propagate to related functions in automation devices. The same data may have to be entered more than once.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  67.  
  68. Issue: database may be erroneous or incomplete (Issue #110)
    Description: Automation system databases may be incomplete, contain erroneous data, or be inconsistent with other information used by the pilots, possibly increasing pilot workload and/or creating the opportunity for navigation or other errors.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  69.  
  70. Issue: deficiencies in basic aircraft training may exist (Issue #63)
    Description: Training for automated aircraft may not adequately prepare pilots with basic (i.e., non-automation) knowledge and skills in that aircraft, and pilots may lack the knowledge and skills necessary to operate the aircraft manually.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  71.  
  72. Issue: displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (Issue #92)
    Description: Displays (including aural warnings and other auditory displays), display formats, and display elements may not be designed for detectability, discriminability, and interpretability. This may cause important information to be missed or misinterpreted.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  73.  
  74. Issue: failure assessment may be difficult (Issue #25)
    Description: It may be difficult to detect, diagnose, and evaluate the consequences of automation failures (errors and malfunctions), especially when behavior seems 'reasonable', possibly resulting in faulty or prolonged decision making.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  75.  
  76. Issue: failure modes may be unanticipated by designers (Issue #24)
    Description: Some possible failures may not be anticipated by designers so there are no contingency procedures provided to pilots, possibly increasing trouble-shooting workload and the opportunity for error.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  77.  
  78. Issue: failure recovery may be difficult (Issue #23)
    Description: When automation fails, pilots may have difficulty taking over monitoring, decision making, and control tasks.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  79.  
  80. Issue: false alarms may be frequent (Issue #70)
    Description: Frequent false alarms may cause pilots to mistrust or ignore automation and therefore not use it or respond to it when they should.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  81.  
  82. Issue: fatigue may be induced (Issue #156)
    Description: Automation may induce fatigue, possibly leading to poor pilot performance.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  83.  
  84. Issue: flightdeck automation may be incompatible with ATC system (Issue #82)
    Description: There may be incompatibilities between advanced automation aircraft and the existing ATC system, possibly increasing pilot workload, causing inconsistent information to be presented, or reducing the pilot's ability to use automation for the best results.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  85.  
  86. Issue: function allocation may be difficult (Issue #117)
    Description: Automation designers may have difficulty in making good decisions about allocating functions to humans or to automation, possibly leading to poor function allocation decisions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  87.  
  88. Issue: human-centered design philosophy may be lacking (Issue #100)
    Description: Automation design may not be guided by a philosophy that gives adequate attention to the proper role and function of the human and to human capabilities and limitations. This may compromise system effectiveness and safety.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  89.  
  90. Issue: inadvertent autopilot disengagement may be too easy (Issue #123)
    Description: It may be too easy for the pilot to inadvertently disengage the autopilot. When this happens, control may be lost.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  91.  
  92. Issue: information integration may be required (Issue #9)
    Description: Pilots may need to integrate information spread over several parts of the interface, possibly creating additional pilot workload.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  93.  
  94. Issue: information overload may exist (Issue #14)
    Description: Large amounts and/or poor formatting of information may increase pilot workload.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  95.  
  96. Issue: information processing load may be increased (Issue #119)
    Description: Information about the mode (state) and behavior of the automation itself may add to the pilot's information processing load, possibly resulting in increased workload and opportunities for error.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  97.  
  98. Issue: instructor training requirements may be inadequate (Issue #143)
    Description: Automation training requirements for instructor/check pilots may not be well defined, possibly leading to inadequately qualified instructor/check pilots.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  99.  
  100. Issue: insufficient information may be displayed (Issue #99)
    Description: Important information that could be displayed by automation is not displayed, thereby limiting the ability of pilots to make safe decisions and actions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  101.  
  102. Issue: interface may be poorly designed (Issue #39)
    Description: The pilot-automation interface may be poorly designed with respect to human factors considerations, possibly resulting in poor pilot performance or pilot dissatisfaction.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  103.  
  104. Issue: inter-pilot communication may be reduced (Issue #139)
    Description: The presence of automation may reduce inter-pilot communication, possibly resulting in less sharing of information.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  105.  
  106. Issue: job satisfaction may be reduced (Issue #13)
    Description: Automation may reduce challenges that are the source of job satisfaction, which may adversely affect pilot performance.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  107.  
  108. Issue: manual operation may be difficult after transition from automated control (Issue #55)
    Description: In some situations flight control may be difficult after transition from automated to manual flight.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  109.  
  110. Issue: manual skills may be lost (Issue #65)
    Description: Pilots may lose psychomotor and cognitive skills required for flying manually, or for flying non-automated aircraft, due to extensive use of automation.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  111.  
  112. Issue: manual skills may not be acquired (Issue #7)
    Description: Low-time pilots assigned to advanced technology aircraft may not acquire manual flying skills, which are still required.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  113.  
  114. Issue: mode awareness may be lacking (Issue #95)
    Description: Pilots may not be able to tell what mode or state the automation is in, how it is configured, what it is doing, and how it will behave. This may lead to reduced situation awareness and errors.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  115.  
  116. Issue: mode selection may be incorrect (Issue #145)
    Description: Pilots may inadvertently select the wrong automation mode or fail to engage the selected mode, possibly causing the automation to behave in ways different than intended or expected.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  117.  
  118. Issue: mode transitions may be uncommanded (Issue #44)
    Description: Automation may change modes without pilot commands to do so, possibly producing surprising behavior.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  119.  
  120. Issue: monitoring requirements may be excessive (Issue #5)
    Description: Pilots are required to monitor automation for long periods of time, a task for which they are perceptually and cognitively ill-suited, and monitoring errors may be likely.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  121.  
  122. Issue: new tasks and errors may exist (Issue #89)
    Description: Automation may change and/or add pilot tasks, possibly making new (often more serious) errors possible.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  123.  
  124. Issue: non-automated pilot tasks may not be integrated (Issue #153)
    Description: Automation designers may leave pilots to do the tasks that cannot be automated. The pilots may be left with a set of poorly integrated tasks that are difficult to perform well.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  125.  
  126. Issue: older pilots may be less accepting of automation (Issue #132)
    Description: Older pilots may have trouble accepting and learning to use automation, possibly making them more prone to misusing it.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  127.  
  128. Issue: operational knowledge may be lacking in design process (Issue #121)
    Description: Automation design may not take into consideration the operational knowledge of pilots. This may lead to designs that are counter-intuitive to pilots, possibly increasing pilot workload and the opportunity for error.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  129.  
  130. Issue: pilot control authority may be diffused (Issue #104)
    Description: The traditional distribution of workload between pilots (e.g., between PF and PNF, between C and F/O) may be modified under automated flight, possibly allowing safety-critical tasks to be neglected.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  131.  
  132. Issue: pilot selection may be more difficult (Issue #136)
    Description: The presence of automation may make pilot selection more difficult, possibly resulting in the selection of pilots not suited or not adequately prepared for their jobs.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  133.  
  134. Issue: pilots have responsibility but may lack authority (Issue #12)
    Description: Automation design may limit the authority of a pilot to exercise full control over the aircraft to perform a function even though he/she still has responsibility for it.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  135.  
  136. Issue: pilots may be out of the loop (Issue #2)
    Description: Pilots may be out of the control loop and peripheral to the actual operation of the aircraft and therefore not prepared to assume control when necessary.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  137.  
  138. Issue: pilots may be overconfident in automation (Issue #131)
    Description: Pilots may become complacent because they are overconfident in and uncritical of automation, and fail to exercise appropriate vigilance, sometimes to the extent of abdicating responsibility to it. This can lead to unsafe conditions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  139.  
  140. Issue: pilots may be reluctant to assume control (Issue #26)
    Description: Pilots may be reluctant to assume control from automation. Even when automation malfunctions or behaves contrary to their expectations they may persist in using it, possibly with time-consuming programming changes.This may lead to unsafe conditions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  141.  
  142. Issue: pilots may lack confidence in automation (Issue #46)
    Description: Pilots may lack confidence in automation due to their experience (or lack thereof) with it. This may result in a failure to use automation when it should be used.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  143.  
  144. Issue: pilots may not be involved in equipment selection (Issue #141)
    Description: Pilots may have little or no input when their companies select automation. This may result in failure to adequately consider pilot needs in the selection process.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  145.  
  146. Issue: pilots may over-rely on automation (Issue #106)
    Description: Pilots may use automation in situations where it should not be used.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  147.  
  148. Issue: pilots may under-rely on automation (Issue #146)
    Description: Pilots may not use automation when they should, possibly leading to unsafe conditions or reduced operating efficiency.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  149.  
  150. Issue: pilot's role may be changed (Issue #144)
    Description: Automation may change the role of the pilot from that of a controller to that of a supervisor. Because most pilots are not adequately trained for and experienced in this role, errors may result.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  151.  
  152. Issue: planning requirements may be increased (Issue #158)
    Description: Flying an automated aircraft may take more planning than flying a manual aircraft. Pilots may not plan far enough ahead to use automated systems, so safety may be compromised.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  153.  
  154. Issue: procedures may assume automation (Issue #151)
    Description: Some procedures may be designed under the assumption that automation will be used. If it is not, either by necessity or pilot choice, workload may be excessive and errors more likely.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  155.  
  156. Issue: programming may be susceptible to error (Issue #170)
    Description: Programming methods for the FMS/autopilot may be susceptible to error.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  157.  
  158. Issue: protections may be lost though pilots continue to rely on them (Issue #15)
    Description: Reversion to lower levels of automation may disable built-in protections, possibly leading to unsafe conditions if pilots continue to rely on them.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  159.  
  160. Issue: scan pattern may change (Issue #38)
    Description: Display layout in automated flightdecks may change the traditional instrument scan pattern, possibly leading to loss of skills which may be needed upon transitioning to conventional aircraft.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  161.  
  162. Issue: similarity may be superficial (Issue #149)
    Description: Although the pilot interface may be superficially similar across aircraft types, there may be significant deep differences that may confuse pilots and lead to unsafe conditions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  163.  
  164. Issue: situation awareness may be reduced (Issue #114)
    Description: Reliance on automation may reduce pilots' awareness of the present and projected state of the aircraft and its environment, possibly resulting in incorrect decisions and actions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  165.  
  166. Issue: software versions may proliferate (Issue #134)
    Description: Different software versions running on the flight management systems (FMSs) of different airplanes may create difficulty for pilots to use them safely and effectively.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  167.  
  168. Issue: standardization may be lacking (Issue #138)
    Description: There may be a lack of function and interface standardization between automation systems, possibly leading to increased training requirements, increased pilot workload, and poor pilot performance.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  169.  
  170. Issue: state prediction may be lacking (Issue #152)
    Description: Automation displays may show only current state and no trend or other information that could help pilots estimate future state or behavior. This may prevent pilots from anticipating and preparing for problems.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  171.  
  172. Issue: task management may be more difficult (Issue #167)
    Description: The use of automation may make task management more difficult for flightcrews, possibly leading to unsafe conditions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  173.  
  174. Issue: testing may be inadequate (Issue #115)
    Description: Automation may not be thoroughly tested before use and therefore not perform correctly under certain conditions.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  175.  
  176. Issue: traffic coordination requirements may increase (Issue #148)
    Description: Freedom from defined route constraints made possible by automation may increase air traffic coordination requirements and complicate conflict prediction
    See all Evidence for this issue

  177.  
  178. Issue: training may be inadequate (Issue #133)
    Description: Training philosophy, objectives, methods, materials, or equipment may be inadequate to properly train pilots for safe and effective automated aircraft operation.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  179.  
  180. Issue: transitioning between aircraft may increase errors (Issue #130)
    Description: Transitioning back and forth between advanced technology aircraft and conventional aircraft may cause problems such as erosion of aircraft-specific skills, possibly leading to pilot errors.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  181.  
  182. Issue: transitioning between aircraft may increase training requirements (Issue #129)
    Description: Transitioning back and forth between advanced technology aircraft and conventional aircraft may increase pilot training requirements.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  183.  
  184. Issue: understanding of automation may be inadequate (Issue #105)
    Description: Pilots may not understand the structure and function of automation or the interaction of automation devices well enough to safely perform their duties.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  185.  
  186. Issue: vertical profile visualization may be difficult (Issue #53)
    Description: It may be difficult for pilots to visualize vertical profiles based on alphanumeric displays. This difficulty may increase pilot workload when flying, or planning to fly, these profiles.
    See all Evidence for this issue

  187.  
  188. Issue: workarounds may be necessary (Issue #107)
    Description: Pilots may use automation in a manner not intended by designers to get desired results or to avoid undesirable consequences, possibly increasing pilot workload and opportunity for error. This may have unanticipated and undesirable side effects.
    See all Evidence for this issue
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