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Issues Organized by Focus
Overview

This page lists the flight deck automation issues identified in our study by focus (automation-centered, pilot-centered, crew-centered, organization-centered, etc.). Each issue is linked to a page containing its complete issue statement and further links to evidence related to the issue.

Automation-Centered Issues

development process
Issues related to the design and testing of automation.


    operational knowledge may be lacking in design process (issue121)
    cultural differences may not be considered (issue165)
    function allocation may be difficult (issue117)
    failure modes may be unanticipated by designers (issue024)
    testing may be inadequate (issue115)




functionality
Issues related to the set of functions automation can perform and how those functions are performed.


    automation may not work well under unusual conditions (issue150)
    automation requirements may conflict (issue160)
    automation may lack reasonable functionality (issue109)
    workarounds may be necessary (issue107)
    automation performance may be limited (issue126)
    automation may use different control strategies than pilots (issue122)
    database may be erroneous or incomplete (issue110)
    automation integration may be poor (issue011)




complexity
Issues related to the structural and functional complexity of automation, including number of modes, number of ways of performing a function with it, and the complexity of procedures for using it.


    automation may be too complex (issue040)
    complex automation may have overly simplistic interface (issue128)
    data entry and programming may be difficult and time consuming (issue112)




levels of automation
Issues related to the extent to which flight deck functions are performed by machines and how pilots use different levels of automation available to them.


    automation level decisions may be difficult (issue103)
    protections may be lost though pilots continue to rely on them (issue015)
    manual operation may be difficult after transition from automated control (issue055)
    automation use may slow pilot responses (issue161)




automation failure
Issues related to the nature and consequences of automation failures and how pilots respond to and cope with them.


    failure modes may be unanticipated by designers (issue024)
    failure assessment may be difficult (issue025)
    failure recovery may be difficult (issue023)




standardization
Issues related to standardization of automation function, pilot/automation interface, and. operating procedures


    standardization may be lacking (issue138)
    similarity may be superficial (issue149)
    software versions may proliferate (issue134)




other automation-centered issues
Other issues related to automation itself.


    automation information in manuals may be inadequate (issue140)







Pilot/Automation Interaction-Centered Issues

human-centered design
Issues related to the degree to which human characteristics, capabilities, limitations, and preferences are taken into account in automation design.


    human-centered design philosophy may be lacking (issue100)
    cultural differences may not be considered (issue165)




pilot/automation responsibility and authority
Issues related to the relative levels of responsibility and authority that pilots and automation have.


    pilots have responsibility but may lack authority (issue012)
    mode transitions may be uncommanded (issue044)
    communication between computers may be unsupervised (issue022)




pilot/automation interface
Issues relating to automation displays and controls and how they are arranged on the flight deck.


    interface may be poorly designed (issue039)
    displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (issue092)
    information integration may be required (issue009)
    data access may be difficult (issue047)
    information overload may exist (issue014)
    information processing load may be increased (issue119)
    insufficient information may be displayed (issue099)
    data presentation may be too abstract (issue087)
    behavior of automation may not be apparent (issue083)
    data entry and programming may be difficult and time consuming ( issue112)
    controls of automation may be poorly designed (issue037)
    data re-entry may be required (issue049)
    data entry errors on keyboards may occur (issue071)
    inadvertent autopilot disengagement may be too easy (issue123)







Pilot-Centered Issues

pilot role
Issues related to the role of pilots in the automated aircraft and the tasks they perform.


    human-centered design philosophy may be lacking (issue100)
    pilot's role may be changed (issue144)
    job satisfaction may be reduced (issue013)
    new tasks and errors may exist (issue089)
    non-automated pilot tasks may not be integrated (issue153)
    monitoring requirements may be excessive (issue005)




understanding of automation
Issues related to how well pilots understand the structure and function of automation.


    understanding of automation may be inadequate (issue105)
    automation may be too complex (issue040)
    automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (issue108)




skill
Issues related to pilots' skills.


    manual skills may not be acquired (issue007)
    manual skills may be lost (issue065)
    scan pattern may change (issue038)
    automation skills may be lost (issue137)
    transitioning between aircraft may increase errors (issue130)




performance
Issues related to how well pilots perform tasks and to pilot error.


    data entry errors on keyboards may occur (issue071)
    new tasks and errors may exist (issue089)
    transitioning between aircraft may increase errors (issue130)
    automation use may slow pilot responses (issue161)
    mode selection may be incorrect (issue145)




confidence
Issues related to the confidence pilots have in automation and in themselves.


    pilots may lack confidence in automation (issue046)
    false alarms may be frequent (issue070)
    pilots may be overconfident in automation (issue131)
    pilots may be reluctant to assume control (issue026)




use of automation
Issues related to decisions about when to use automation, when to not use it, and to what extent to use it.


    pilots may over-rely on automation (issue106)
    pilots may under-rely on automation (issue146)
    automation level decisions may be difficult (issue103)
    procedures may assume automation (issue151)
    company automation policies and procedures may be inappropriate or inadequate (issue166)




situation awareness
Issues related to pilots' awareness of the present and future state of the aircraft and its environment.


    situation awareness may be reduced (issue114)
    pilots may be out of the loop (issue002)
    state prediction may be lacking (issue152)




automation awareness
Issues related to the mode and behavior of the automation, including its current state, what it is doing now and what it will do in the future.


    mode awareness may be lacking (issue095)
    behavior of automation may not be apparent (issue083)
    mode transitions may be uncommanded (issue044)
    automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (issue108)
    vertical profile visualization may be difficult (issue053)
    communication between computers may be unsupervised (issue022)




attention
Issues related to pilots' focus of attention to -- what they are devoting conscious thought and action to.


    automation may demand attention (issue102)
    monitoring requirements may be excessive (issue005)
    both pilots' attention simultaneously diverted by programming (issue075)
    task management may be more difficult (issue167)
    pilots may be out of the loop (issue002)




workload
Issues related to how automation affects pilot workload, both mental and physical.


    automation may adversely affect pilot workload (issue079)
    fatigue may be induced (issue156)
    information processing load may be increased (issue119)
    planning requirements may be increased (issue158)
    automation may lack reasonable functionality (issue109)
    data entry and programming may be difficult and time consuming (issue112)




other pilot-centered issues
Other issues related to the pilots.


    older pilots may be less accepting of automation (issue132)
    cultural differences may not be considered (issue165)







Crew-Centered Issues

crew coordination
Issues related to how automation affects flightcrew interaction.


    crew coordination problems may occur (issue084)
    cross checking may be difficult (issue072)
    pilot control authority may be diffused (issue104)
    inter-pilot communication may be reduced (issue139)
    both pilots' attention simultaneously diverted by programming (issue075)
    task management may be more difficult (issue167)
    crew assignment may be inappropriate (issue142)







Automated Aircraft/ATC Interaction-Centered Issues

ATC conflicts
Issues related to incompatibilities between the automated aircraft and air traffic control.


    flightdeck automation may be incompatible with ATC system (issue082)




other automated aircraft/ATC interaction-centered issues
Other issues related to the interaction of the automated aircraft with the air traffic system.


    traffic coordination requirements may increase (issue148)







Organization-Centered Issues

company automation philosophies, policies , and procedures
Issues related to airlines' philosophies about acquiring and using automation and the policies and procedures they adopt for its use.


    commercial incentives may dominate (issue127)
    automation use philosophy may be lacking (issue101)
    company automation policies and procedures may be inappropriate or inadequate (issue166)
    procedures may assume automation (issue151)
    pilots may not be involved in equipment selection (issue141)
    crew assignment may be inappropriate (issue142)




pilot selection, training, and evaluation
Issues related to the airlines' selection, training, and evaluation of pilots.


    pilot selection may be more difficult (issue136)
    deficiencies in basic aircraft training may exist (issue063)
    training may be inadequate (issue133)
    instructor training requirements may be inadequate (issue143)
    transitioning between aircraft may increase training requirements (issue129)
    automation may be over-emphasized in pilot evaluation (issue116)



  Last update: 4 June 2003 Flight Deck Automation Issues Website  
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