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Evidence for an Issue 31 pieces of evidence for this issue.

manual skills may be lost (Issue #65) - Pilots may lose psychomotor and cognitive skills required for flying manually, or for flying non-automated aircraft, due to extensive use of automation.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: "However, unlike charts, the FMS-generated displays do not present associated information, such as terrain, and do not display navaids that are behind the airplane unless specifically directed to by a flightcrew member. As a result, pilots who are accustomed to relying exclusively on FMS-generated displays for navigation, can, over time, fail to recognize the relative proximity of terrain and can lose the ability to quickly determine that a fix or beacon is behind them. The evidence suggests that this partially explains the difficulty of the AA965 flightcrew in locating the ULQ. " (page 38)
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B757-223
    Equipment: FMS
    Source: Aeronautica Civil of the Republic of Colombia (1996). Controlled Flight Into Terrain, American Airlines Flight 965, Boeing 757-223, N651AA, Near Cali, Colombia, December 20, 1995. Santafe de Bogota, DC, Colombia: Aeronautica Civil of the Republic of Colombia. See Resource details

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  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "87% agree that they 'hand-fly part of every trip to keep my skills up' (#14)" while 9% disagreed with the statement and 4% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 22)
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Curry, R.E. (1985). The Introduction of New Cockpit Technology: A Human Factors Study. NASA Technical Memorandum 86659, 1-68. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

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  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "80% agree that 'pilots who overuse automation will see their flying skills suffer' (#18)." while 15% disagreed with the statement and 6% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 22)
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Curry, R.E. (1985). The Introduction of New Cockpit Technology: A Human Factors Study. NASA Technical Memorandum 86659, 1-68. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "Interestingly, this concern for other pilots [who overuse automation and consequently see their flying skills suffer] did not always carry over to themselves because only 63% agreed that 'I am concerned about a possible loss of my flying skills with too much automation' (#31)" while 29% disagreed with the statement and 8% neither agreed nor disagreed. "It is felt, however, that some pilots did not agree with this statement because [italicized by author] they do a lot of hand-flying." (page 22)
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Curry, R.E. (1985). The Introduction of New Cockpit Technology: A Human Factors Study. NASA Technical Memorandum 86659, 1-68. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

  9.  
  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "87% agree that they 'hand-fly part of every trip to keep my skills up' (#14)" while 9% disagreed with the statement and 4% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 22)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Curry, R.E. (1985). The Introduction of New Cockpit Technology: A Human Factors Study. NASA Technical Memorandum 86659, 1-68. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

  11.  
  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "80% agree that 'pilots who overuse automation will see their flying skills suffer' (#18)." while 15% disagreed with the statement and 6% neither agreed nor disagreed. (page 22)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Curry, R.E. (1985). The Introduction of New Cockpit Technology: A Human Factors Study. NASA Technical Memorandum 86659, 1-68. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

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  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the questionnaire data: "Interestingly, this concern for other pilots [who overuse automation and consequently see their flying skills suffer] did not always carry over to themselves because only 63% agreed that 'I am concerned about a possible loss of my flying skills with too much automation' (#31)" while 29% disagreed with the statement and 8% neither agreed nor disagreed. "It is felt, however, that some pilots did not agree with this statement because [italicized by author] they do a lot of hand-flying." (page 22)
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Curry, R.E. (1985). The Introduction of New Cockpit Technology: A Human Factors Study. NASA Technical Memorandum 86659, 1-68. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

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  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: "The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing levels of cockpit automation affect the amount of the time pilots spend performing various activities. Three activities—looking outside of the cockpit, hand flying, andcommunicating—were of particular interest. Our data (reported in Damos, John, and Lyall, in press) concerning looking outside the cockpit support Wiener’s (1993) concerns; pilots of automated aircraft spend more time heads down than pilots of traditional aircraft during approach (below 10,000 ft). Our data, however, indicate that the increase in heads down time only occurs during approach to landings at airports with high traffic density. Similarly, our results show a decrease in hand flying with increased levels of automation and agree with the survey results of McClumpha et al. (1991). However, our results do not support completely those of Costley et al. (1989) and Veinott and Irwin (1993) about the effects of increasing levels of automation on communication. Our analyses only showed a significant effect of automation on flightrelated communication. Additionally, although our analyses showed a significant effect of automation, the differences between the aircraft are relatively small and may have few operational implications."
    Strength: +5
    Aircraft: 737/200, 737/300
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Endsley, M.R. & Strauch, B. (1997). Automation and situation awareness: The accident at Cali, Columbia. In R.S. Jensen & L. Rakovan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 877-881. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University. See Resource details

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  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.37. Are you afraid of losing some manual dexterity through automation?" 58.9% of the respondents anwered 'Yes', 40.0% answered 'No.' and 1.1% gave no response. (page 31)
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Gras, A., Moricot, C., et. al. (1994). Faced with automation. Publications de la Sorbonne. See Resource details

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  20. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.37. Are you afraid of losing some manual dexterity through automation?" 58.9% of the respondents anwered 'Yes', 40.0% answered 'No.' and 1.1% gave no response. (page 31)
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Gras, A., Moricot, C., et. al. (1994). Faced with automation. Publications de la Sorbonne. See Resource details

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  22. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: From the survey data: "I am concerned about a possible loss of my flying skills with too much automation." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 3=Neutral, 5=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 3.43 and the standard deviation was 1.15. (page 20)
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B757 & B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Hutchins, E., Holder, B., & Hayward, M. (1999). Pilot Attitudes Toward Automation. Web published at http://hci.ucsd.edu/hutchins/attitudes/index.html. See Resource details

  23.  
  24. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The results of item one [Item one is a 5 point bi-polar statement: 1="Pilots who fly advanced automated aircraft have enhanced flying skills", 3 = neutral, and 5="Pilots who fly advanced automated aircraft have degraded flying skills", average response = 3.71, rating=percentage of respondents : 1=1%, 2=3%, 3=35%, 4=45%, 5=16%] reveal a firm belief that pilots who fly automated aircraft have degraded flying skills" (page 194-196)
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: James, M., McClumpha, A., Green, R., Wilson, P., & Belyavin, A. (1991). Pilot attitudes to cockpit automation. In R.S. Jensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, Ohio, April 1991, 192-198. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University. See Resource details

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  26. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The results of item one [Item one is a 5 point bi-polar statement: 1="Pilots who fly advanced automated aircraft have enhanced flying skills", 3 = neutral, and 5="Pilots who fly advanced automated aircraft have degraded flying skills", average response = 3.71, rating=percentage of respondents : 1=1%, 2=3%, 3=35%, 4=45%, 5=16%] reveal a firm belief that pilots who fly automated aircraft have degraded flying skills" (page 194-196)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: James, M., McClumpha, A., Green, R., Wilson, P., & Belyavin, A. (1991). Pilot attitudes to cockpit automation. In R.S. Jensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, Ohio, April 1991, 192-198. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University. See Resource details

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  28. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 19 of the 30 (63%) respondents reported a 4 (= agree) or 5 (= strongly agree) with pc065 manual skills may be lost
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

  29.  
  30. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 4 of the 30 (13%) respondents reported a 1 (=strongly disagree) or a 2 (=disagree) with pc065 manual skills may be lost
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

  31.  
  32. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots ... are also concerned that overuse of automation or too much automation, will erode their manual flying skills (No ... 39). " Statement 39: "Pilots who overuse automation will see their flying skills suffer." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 68 and the standard deviation was 24. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 57)
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Morters, K. (1988). B767 Flightdeck Automation Research. Research Paper 32:420, 1-141. See Resource details

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  34. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots ... are also concerned that overuse of automation or too much automation, will erode their manual flying skills (No 6 ... ). " ... Statement 6: "I am concerned about the possible loss of my flying skills with too much automation." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 63 and the standard deviation was 27. The minimum response was 7 and the maximum was 100. (page 45, 57)
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Morters, K. (1988). B767 Flightdeck Automation Research. Research Paper 32:420, 1-141. See Resource details

  35.  
  36. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots also strongly endorse the comment that they hand fly often to maintain manual skills for simulator details (No 20)" ... Statement 20: "I hand fly often to maintain my manual skills for simulator details." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 64 and the standard deviation was 26. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 48)
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Morters, K. (1988). B767 Flightdeck Automation Research. Research Paper 32:420, 1-141. See Resource details

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  38. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots ... are also concerned that overuse of automation or too much automation, will erode their manual flying skills (No ... 39). " Statement 39: "Pilots who overuse automation will see their flying skills suffer." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 68 and the standard deviation was 24. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 57)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Morters, K. (1988). B767 Flightdeck Automation Research. Research Paper 32:420, 1-141. See Resource details

  39.  
  40. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots ... are also concerned that overuse of automation or too much automation, will erode their manual flying skills (No 6 ... ). " ... Statement 6: "I am concerned about the possible loss of my flying skills with too much automation." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 63 and the standard deviation was 27. The minimum response was 7 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 57)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Morters, K. (1988). B767 Flightdeck Automation Research. Research Paper 32:420, 1-141. See Resource details

  41.  
  42. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The pilots also strongly endorse the comment that they hand fly often to maintain manual skills for simulator details (No 20)" ... Statement 20: "I hand fly often to maintain my manual skills for simulator details." On the scale in which 1= Strongly Disagree, 25=Disagree, 50=Neither agree nor disagree, 75=Agree, and 100=Strongly Agree, the mean pilot response was 64 and the standard deviation was 26. The minimum response was 1 and the maximum was 100. (page 46, 48)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Morters, K. (1988). B767 Flightdeck Automation Research. Research Paper 32:420, 1-141. See Resource details

  43.  
  44. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 8: "Do you consider there is a contradiction between the company's requirement of maximum use of automation on the line, and the requirement to demonstrate proficiency in hand flying the simulator during your training checks? Please comment." ... "Thirty seven pilots [out of 65, 57%] did not believe a contradiction existed about company policy, as there is ample opportunity to hand fly the aircraft during line operation and thereby maintain proficiency." (page 81, 107)
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Morters, K. (1988). B767 Flightdeck Automation Research. Research Paper 32:420, 1-141. See Resource details

  45.  
  46. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Incident Study
    Evidence: In our review of 282 automation-related ASRS incident reports, we found 3 reports (1%) supporting issue065 (manual skills may be lost).
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Owen, G. & Funk, K. (1997). Flight Deck Automation Issues: Incident Report Analysis. http://www.flightdeckautomation.com/incidentstudy/incident-analysis.aspx. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering. See Resource details

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  48. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Automation may reduce crew airmanship and basic skills, even though, 'Automation has not changed the fundamentals of airmanship. Keeping air under the wings, knowing your position in space, being in the right configuration, are still as important as ever.' Pilots reported a decrease in their handling abilities, a loss of (or change in) scan, and a decrease in navigation/position awareness." (page 8)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Rudisill, M. (1995). Line Pilots' Attitudes About and Experience With Flight Deck Automation: Results of an International Survey and Proposed Guidelines. In R.S. Jensen, & L.A. Rakovan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, Ohio, April 24-27, 1995, 288-293. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University. See Resource details

  49.  
  50. Evidence Type: Excerpt from resource
    Evidence: "The change in how pilots gather information on advanced flight decks is likely to affect their proficiency in the traditional basic instrument scan. This concern was mentioned by 10 pilots, who expected that it would be difficult for them to return to a conventional aircraft after flying an advanced automated aircraft like the Airbus A-320 for an extended period." (page 564)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: A-320
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Sherry, L. & Polson, P.G. (1999). Shared models of flight management system vertical guidance. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 9(2), 139-153. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. See Resource details

  51.  
  52. Evidence Type: Excerpt from resource
    Evidence: "Eight pilots were concerned about the design because they feared that it would lead to a loss of piloting skills (e.g., no longer knowing relevant power settings)." (page 565)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: A-320
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Sherry, L. & Polson, P.G. (1999). Shared models of flight management system vertical guidance. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 9(2), 139-153. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. See Resource details

  53.  
  54. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Experiment
    Evidence: Concern ratings showed a clear differentiation of levels (see Table 3). Overall concern grew from 2.35 to 3.29 as automation increased, which was a significant difference, F(2, 220) = 96.001, p < .OOOl . A Tukey test showed that each of the levels differed significantly from the others. These results were highly stable, with concern increasing regularly across levels for a majority of items (see superscripted items in Table 3). Major concerns at the fully automated level were increased head-downtime (4.05) complacency (3.95), and degradation of pilot skills (3.90) (page 111)
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Skitka, L.J., Mosier, K.L., Burdick, M., & Rosenblatt, B. (2000). Automation bias and errors: Are crews better than individuals?. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 10(1), 85-97. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. See Resource details

  55.  
  56. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 9: "I prefer to hand-fly part of every trip to keep my skills up." From the histograph of the responses in Phase 1 of the study, 89% of the pilots agreed or strongly agreed with the statement and in Phase 2 of the study, 87% of the pilots agreed or strongly agreed with the statement while 4% disagreed or strongly disagreed in Phase 1, and 7% disagreed or strongly disagreed in Phase 2. The neutral responses were 7% in Phase 1 and 6% in Phase 2. (page 81)
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: B757
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Wiener, E.L. (1989). Human Factors of Advanced Technology ("Glass Cockpit") Transport Aircraft. NASA Contractor Report 177528. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

  57.  
  58. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 2: "I am concerned about a possible loss of my flying skills with too much automation." From the histograph of the responses in Phase 1 of the study, 49% of the pilots agreed or strongly agreed with the statement and in Phase 2 of the study, 50% of the pilots agreed or strongly agreed with the statement while 32% disagreed or strongly disagreed in Phase 1, and 33% disagreed or strongly disagreed in Phase 2. The neutral responses were 19% in Phase 1 and 17% in Phase 2. (page 81)
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: B757
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Wiener, E.L. (1989). Human Factors of Advanced Technology ("Glass Cockpit") Transport Aircraft. NASA Contractor Report 177528. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

  59.  
  60. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The data reported here concur with that of the author's previous field of study on the MD-80 (Wiener, 1988b), in finding little evidence that crews of advanced technology aircraft have suffered significant skill loss. Crews report little problem on the manually flown portion of their proficiency checks." (page 174)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B757/MD80
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Wiener, E.L. (1989). Human Factors of Advanced Technology ("Glass Cockpit") Transport Aircraft. NASA Contractor Report 177528. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

  61.  
  62. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Statement 2: "I am concerned about a possible loss of my flying skills with too much automation." From the histograph of the responses in Phase 1 of the study, 49% of the pilots agreed or strongly agreed with the statement and in Phase 2 of the study, 50% of the pilots agreed or strongly agreed with the statement while only 32% disagreed or strongly disagreed in Phase 1, and 33% disagreed or strongly disagreed in Phase 2. The neutral responses were 19% in Phase 1 and 17% in Phase 2. (page 81)
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: B757
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Wiener, E.L. (1989). Human Factors of Advanced Technology ("Glass Cockpit") Transport Aircraft. NASA Contractor Report 177528. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details
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