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Evidence for an Issue 11 pieces of evidence for this issue.

deficiencies in basic aircraft training may exist (Issue #63) - Training for automated aircraft may not adequately prepare pilots with basic (i.e., non-automation) knowledge and skills in that aircraft, and pilots may lack the knowledge and skills necessary to operate the aircraft manually.

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  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "A significant number of pilots wished to have more experience hand flying the simulator" (page 17)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B767
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Curry, R.E. (1985). The Introduction of New Cockpit Technology: A Human Factors Study. NASA Technical Memorandum 86659, 1-68. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

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  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comment was made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "Training pilots I find a lack of basic navigation skills/techniques that cause a 'introspective' perception of where the aircraft is." (747 First Officer)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment:
    Source: Lyall, B., Wilson, J., & Funk, K. (1997). Flightdeck automation issues: Phase 1 survey analysis. Available: http://www.flightdeckautomation.com/ExpertSurvey/e_report.aspx. See Resource details

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  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 15 of the 30 (50%) respondents reported a 4 (= agree) or 5 (= strongly agree) with pc63 deficiencies in basic aircraft training may exist
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

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  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 6 of the 30 (20%) respondents reported a 1 (=strongly disagree) or a 2 (=disagree) with pc63 deficiencies in basic aircraft training may exist
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

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  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Observational Study
    Evidence: "Some pilots have claimed that many of the new pilots are uncomfortable unless they are flying in an automatic mode because that is the only way that they have been trained to use these systems. Overall, there seems to be a consensus that our training has put too much emphasis on the automatics to the neglect [emphasized] of the basic airplane." (page 16-17)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Orlady, H.W. (1989). Training for advanced cockpit technology aircraft. In Proceedings of the Second Regional Safety Foundation Workshop sponsored by China Airlines and the Flight Safety Foundation, March 3-4, 1989, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. See Resource details

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  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Comments were decomposed into five categories relating to: (1) general observations with regard to flight deck automation; comments concerning the (2) design and (3) crew understanding of automation and the crew interface; (4) crew operations with automation; and (5) personal factors affecting crew/automation interaction." In analyzing the personal factors affecting crew/automation interaction, the following was found: "Experienced pilots maintain that training pressures may not allow the development of basic piloting skills and also note that inexperienced pilots appear less aware of such flight fundamentals as airspeed, altitudes, and naviagation." (page 8)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Rudisill, M. (1995). Line Pilots' Attitudes About and Experience With Flight Deck Automation: Results of an International Survey and Proposed Guidelines. In R.S. Jensen, & L.A. Rakovan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, Ohio, April 24-27, 1995, 288-293. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University. See Resource details

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  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Some [pilots] believe the training philosophy needs to be refocused and that attention should be given to the basics of flying and automation should be placed in this context, instead of concentrating primarily on the automated systems. ... A primary concern expressed is that present training methods may produce an 'era of button-pushers,' not pilots." (page 7)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Rudisill, M. (1995). Line Pilots' Attitudes About and Experience With Flight Deck Automation: Results of an International Survey and Proposed Guidelines. In R.S. Jensen, & L.A. Rakovan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, Ohio, April 24-27, 1995, 288-293. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University. See Resource details

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  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Over the full range of skills that were investigated, a substantial percentage of the investigated pilot population expressed a need for extra training…ranking of seven different skill groups with respect to need/priority for extra training 1) knowledge of automation 2) decision making 3) crew resource management 4)manual flying 5)determination of appropriate SOP's 6) standard cockpit handling 7)knowledge of SOP's." Note: this information is depicted in table format in the document.
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Sherman, P.J., Helmreich, R.L., & Merritt, A. (1997). National culture and flight deck automation: Results of a multination survey. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 7(4), 311-329. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. See Resource details

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  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Both [captains and copilots] would welcome initial training putting more emphasis on basics and practical hints to reinforce know how and general understanding." (page 11-12)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: A310
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Speyer, J.J., Monteil, C., Blomberg, R.D., & Fouillot, J.P. (1990). Impact of New Technology on Operational Interface: From Design Aims to Flight Evaluation and Measurement. Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development No. 301, Vol. 1. See Resource details

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  20. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "INITIAL OPERATING EXPERIENCE (IOE) [On the first questionnaire, crews were asked]... Describe any problems that you had during your IOE (initial operating experience) and early months of flying the 757. Are there still areas you have trouble with, or don't understand?" 7 pilots of 166 responded that "Too much time had been spent in training on computer, and not enough on basic flying of airplane." [7/166 = 4.2% of the pilots] (page 72)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B757
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Wiener, E.L. (1989). Human Factors of Advanced Technology ("Glass Cockpit") Transport Aircraft. NASA Contractor Report 177528. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

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  22. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "The most commonly heard criticism of ground school was that there was an over-emphasis on 'magic' (automation) to the exclusion of basic airplane knowledge and skills. The conduct of the first day of instruction both in ground school and simulator was particularly criticized on these grounds. In ground school it was felt that the first day should have been devoted to 'basic airplane' introduction in the classroom, and likewise basic handling characteristics in the first day CSS instruction. Obviously pilots feel the need to understand the basic characteristics of a new airplane before becoming immersed in the details of its advanced equipment. As many reported, 'it's still just an airplane.' Some improvement in this situation has already occurred in the 757 training at host airlines, where more emphasis on the 'basic airplane' has been added to the first day of ground school. Over-emphasis on automation on the first day of ground school appears to be a valid criticism, and other training departments, faced with introducing crews to the advanced technology for the first time, might consider revising their syllabi to respond to this need. If nothing else, such a revision might give the crews more self-confidence before moving into the unfamiliar land of the details of programming the FMS. It might also be helpful in overcoming the computer resistance seen in some of the older captains." (page 172)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B757
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Wiener, E.L. (1989). Human Factors of Advanced Technology ("Glass Cockpit") Transport Aircraft. NASA Contractor Report 177528. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details
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