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Evidence for an Issue 6 pieces of evidence for this issue.

vertical profile visualization may be difficult (Issue #53) - It may be difficult for pilots to visualize vertical profiles based on alphanumeric displays. This difficulty may increase pilot workload when flying, or planning to fly, these profiles.

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  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: "The evidence suggests several explanations for this deficiency in the flightcrew’s situational awareness: ... · Terrain information was not shown on the electronic horizontal situation indicator (EHSI) or graphically portrayed on the approach chart " (page 35) "3. CONCLUSIONS ... 3.2 Probable Cause Aeronautica Civil determines that the probable causes of this accident were: ... 3. The lack of situational awareness of the flightcrew regarding vertical navigation, proximity to terrain, and the relative location of critical radio aids." (page 57) (page 35, 57)
    Strength: +5
    Aircraft: B757-223
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Aeronautica Civil of the Republic of Colombia (1996). Controlled Flight Into Terrain, American Airlines Flight 965, Boeing 757-223, N651AA, Near Cali, Colombia, December 20, 1995. Santafe de Bogota, DC, Colombia: Aeronautica Civil of the Republic of Colombia. See Resource details

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  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 23 of the 30 (77%) respondents reported a 4 (= agree) or 5 (= strongly agree) with pc53 vertical profile visualization may be difficult
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

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  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 2 of the 30 (7%) respondents reported a 1 (=strongly disagree) or a 2 (=disagree) with pc53 vertical profile visualization may be difficult
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

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  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: By providing vertical guidance along a constant descent gradient to the runway, the use of on-board flight management system- and/or global positioning system-based equipment can provide most of the safety advantages of a precision approach during a nonprecision approach. (page 174)
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: Boeing 747-300
    Equipment:
    Source: National Transportation Safety Board (2000). Controlled Flight Into Terrain, Korean Air Flight 801, Boeing 747-300, HL7468, Nimitz Hill, Guam, August 6, 1997. Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR-00/01. Washington, DC: National Transportation Safety Board. See Resource details

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  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Observational Study
    Evidence: "Most Frequently Observed Problems ... Visualization of FMS-calculated vertical profile" (page 315)
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: B737-300
    Equipment: FMS
    Source: Sarter, N.B. & Woods, D.D. (1992). Pilot interaction with cockpit automation: Operational experiences with the Flight Management System. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 2(4), 303-321. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. See Resource details

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  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Pilots were asked to describe instances where FMS behavior surprised them and to indicate modes/features of FMS operation that they did not understand. There were no sharp boundaries between the incidents elicited by the two questions. Pilot reports are categorized according to their underlying theme." ... "VNAV logic and calculations ( 38 Reports) Pilots indicate that the algorithms underlying the calculation of a VNAV path are not transparent to them. They cannot visualize the intended path, and therefore they are sometimes unable to anticipate or understand VNAV activities initiated to maintain target parameters (25 [of 135] reports [19%])". (page 307,310)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B737-300
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Sarter, N.B. & Woods, D.D. (1992). Pilot interaction with cockpit automation: Operational experiences with the Flight Management System. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 2(4), 303-321. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. See Resource details
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