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Evidence for an Issue 5 pieces of evidence for this issue.

planning requirements may be increased (Issue #158) - Flying an automated aircraft may take more planning than flying a manual aircraft. Pilots may not plan far enough ahead to use automated systems, so safety may be compromised.

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  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comment was made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "To fly an automated aircraft takes more planning. Few pilots plan far enough ahead to use automated systems." (B747 Captain)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, B., Wilson, J., & Funk, K. (1997). Flightdeck automation issues: Phase 1 survey analysis. Available: http://www.flightdeckautomation.com/ExpertSurvey/e_report.aspx. See Resource details

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  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 6 of the 30 (20%) respondents reported a 4 (= agree) or 5 (= strongly agree) with pc158 planning requirements may be increased
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

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  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 9 of the 30 (30%) respondents reported a 1 (=strongly disagree) or a 2 (=disagree) with pc158 planning requirements may be increased
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

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  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 30 asked pilots if they agreed that the visual displays/instruments allow them to think-ahead of the aircraft…Among the AH-64D pilots, 55% of the responses were on the agree side of the scale… (page 12)
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Rash, C.E., Adam, G.E., LeDuc, P.A., & Francis, G. (May 6-8, 2003). Pilot Attitudes on Glass and Traditional Cockpits in the U.S. Army's AH-64 Apache Helicopter. Presented at the American Helicopter Society 59th Annual Forum, Phoenix, AZ. American Helicopter Society International, Inc. See Resource details

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  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "VIII. Workload ... B. Coping Strategies... Workload Management and Advanced Planning Numerous pilots stressed the importance of management of workload, and of planning ahead. They recognized the importance of management by doing as much planning and data entry as possible during phases of lower demand. Many stressed pre-flight programming at the gate whenever possible, and likewise for planning and programming during cruise in preparation for descent." (page 135) ... In response to Question "2-4. What can you say about overall workload of the 757 compared to the other aircraft you have flown? Include mental workload, monitoring etc. What about outside scan?" 4 pilots mentioned the "Importance of pre-planning in workload reduction" (page 138-139) ... 1 pilot made the following response: "It is easy to get pushed and make minor errors on the ground before takeoff if you try to move at the pace that external pressure required (making schedule, radio communication, FMC programming etc.). Planning ahead is definitely required for approaches. All the A/C I have flown have peaks and valleys of workload. However, the peaks and valleys are more accentuated on the 757. 4007" (page 141) (page 135-141)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B757
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Wiener, E.L. (1989). Human Factors of Advanced Technology ("Glass Cockpit") Transport Aircraft. NASA Contractor Report 177528. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details
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