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Evidence for an Issue 14 pieces of evidence for this issue.

inter-pilot communication may be reduced (Issue #139) - The presence of automation may reduce inter-pilot communication, possibly resulting in less sharing of information.

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  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Observational Study
    Evidence: The remaining two communication activities were concerned with conversations between the two pilots. One represented task-relevant conversation; the other, non-relevant conversation. The mean frequencies are shown in Table 5. A two-way (level of cockpit automation, pilot role) ANACOVA performed on task-relevant conversation showed a main effect of level of cockpit automation (F (3, 188) = 4.71; p <.01). The post hoc comparisons of the SP-77 versus the 300a and of the SP-177 versus the 300a were both significant. Of the variables that we expected to be affected by the length of the climbs and descents, non-relevant conversation was the only one that showed a non-significant effect of the covariate (p = .07). (page 13)
    Strength: +5
    Aircraft: B737
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Damos, D.L., John, R.S., & Lyall, E.A. (2005). Pilot Activities and the Level of Cockpit Automation. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 15(3), 251-268. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. See Resource details

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  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: "The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing levels of cockpit automation affect the amount of the time pilots spend performing various activities. Three activities—looking outside of the cockpit, hand flying, andcommunicating—were of particular interest. Our data (reported in Damos, John, and Lyall, in press) concerning looking outside the cockpit support Wiener’s (1993) concerns; pilots of automated aircraft spend more time heads down than pilots of traditional aircraft during approach (below 10,000 ft). Our data, however, indicate that the increase in heads down time only occurs during approach to landings at airports with high traffic density. Similarly, our results show a decrease in hand flying with increased levels of automation and agree with the survey results of McClumpha et al. (1991). However, our results do not support completely those of Costley et al. (1989) and Veinott and Irwin (1993) about the effects of increasing levels of automation on communication. Our analyses only showed a significant effect of automation on flightrelated communication. Additionally, although our analyses showed a significant effect of automation, the differences between the aircraft are relatively small and may have few operational implications."
    Strength: -5
    Aircraft: 737/200, 737/300
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Endsley, M.R. & Strauch, B. (1997). Automation and situation awareness: The accident at Cali, Columbia. In R.S. Jensen & L. Rakovan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 877-881. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University. See Resource details

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  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Automatic devices tend rather to reduce communication between crew members for 49% of pilots (half of them); 27.8% gave no opinion while 22.7% believe, on the contrary, that communication is enhanced by automation (Q.15). ... Q.15. Do you think that automation improves or reduces communication between crew members?" (page 25-26)
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Gras, A., Moricot, C., et. al. (1994). Faced with automation. Publications de la Sorbonne. See Resource details

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  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Automatic devices tend rather to reduce communication between crew members for 49% of pilots (half of them); 27.8% gave no opinion while 22.7% believe, on the contrary, that communication is enhanced by automation (Q.15). ... Q.15. Do you think that automation improves or reduces communication between crew members?" (page 25-26)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Gras, A., Moricot, C., et. al. (1994). Faced with automation. Publications de la Sorbonne. See Resource details

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  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 10 of the 30 (33%) respondents reported a 4 (= agree) or 5 (= strongly agree) with pc139 inter-pilot communication may be reduced
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

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  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 7 of the 30 (23%) respondents reported a 1 (=strongly disagree) or a 2 (=disagree) with pc139 inter-pilot communication may be reduced
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

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  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: In response to the survey question regarding communication: "2. Do you think that the amount of total communication in the cockpit is different in the 200 and the 300?" Out of a total of 195 responses, 20 pilots [10%] responded that there is more in the 200, 41 pilots [21%] responded that there is more in the 300, and 134 pilots [69%] responded that the amount is the same in the 200 and 300. (This data from an unpublished addendum to the report.) (page ?)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B737
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E.A. (1990). The effects of mixed-fleet flying of the Boeing 737-200 and -300. America West Airlines Technical Report AWA01-90-01. Phoenix, AZ: America West Airlines. See Resource details

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  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: In response to the survey question regarding communication: "1. Do you think that the amount of verbal communication between pilots in the cockpit is different in the 200 and the 300?" Out of a total of 199 responses, 28 pilots [14%] responded that there is more in the 200, 51pilots [26%] responded that there is more in the 300, and 120 pilots [60%] responded that the amount is the same in the 200 and 300. (This data from an unpublished addendum to the report.) (page ?)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B737
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E.A. (1990). The effects of mixed-fleet flying of the Boeing 737-200 and -300. America West Airlines Technical Report AWA01-90-01. Phoenix, AZ: America West Airlines. See Resource details

  17.  
  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: In response to the survey question regarding communication: "1. Do you think that the amount of verbal communication between pilots in he cockpit is different in the 200 and the 300?" Out of a total of 199 responses, 28 pilots [14%] responded that there is more in the 200, 51pilots [26%] responded that there is more in the 300, and 120 pilots [60%] responded that the amount is the same in the 200 and 300. (This data from an unpublished addendum to the report.) (page ?)
    Strength: -4
    Aircraft: B737
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E.A. (1990). The effects of mixed-fleet flying of the Boeing 737-200 and -300. America West Airlines Technical Report AWA01-90-01. Phoenix, AZ: America West Airlines. See Resource details

  19.  
  20. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: In response to the survey question regarding communication: "2. Do you think that the amount of total communication in the cockpit is different in the 200 and the 300?" Out of a total of 195 responses, 20 pilots [10%] responded that there is more in the 200, 41 pilots [21%] responded that there is more in the 300, and 134 pilots [69%] responded that the amount is the same in the 200 and 300. (This data from an unpublished addendum to the report.) (page ?)
    Strength: -5
    Aircraft: B737
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E.A. (1990). The effects of mixed-fleet flying of the Boeing 737-200 and -300. America West Airlines Technical Report AWA01-90-01. Phoenix, AZ: America West Airlines. See Resource details

  21.  
  22. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Experiment
    Evidence: "Results of this study do not support statements which speculate a decreasing trend of communication with increasing levels of automation (Poducal, 1987; Speyer and Fort, 1987; Segal, 1989; and Maurino, 1991)." (page 218)
    Strength: -5
    Aircraft: B737
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Petridis, R.S., Lyall, E.A., & Robideau, R.L. (1995). The effects of flight deck automation on verbal flight-relevant communication. In R.S. Jensen, & L.A. Rakovan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, Ohio, April 24-27, 1995, 216-220. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University. See Resource details

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  24. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Question 22 asked pilots if they agreed that the visual displays/instruments supported free flow of information among crewmembers…Among the AH-64D pilots, 67% of the responses were on the agree side of the scale… (page 11)
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: AH-64D
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Rash, C.E., Adam, G.E., LeDuc, P.A., & Francis, G. (May 6-8, 2003). Pilot Attitudes on Glass and Traditional Cockpits in the U.S. Army's AH-64 Apache Helicopter. Presented at the American Helicopter Society 59th Annual Forum, Phoenix, AZ. American Helicopter Society International, Inc. See Resource details

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  26. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Report
    Evidence: "The majority of pilots in every nation said they knew how to utilize the automation effectively (i.e., can rapidly access the FMC, feel free to select level of automation, understand all the FMC modes and features), and that they knew to include the other pilot in automation decisions and activities (i.e., more cross-checking and acknowledgment of program changes)." (page 323)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Strauch, B. (1997). Automation and decision making -- lessons from the Cali accident. In Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 195-199. See Resource details

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  28. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Observational Study
    Evidence: "The discussions that evolved were informative and contributed to this report. Several issues relevant to the various questionnaire sections were discussed. Some pertinent comments and findings are stated below: ... Crew Coordination ... 'Biggest complaint, the number one complaint is the breakdown in communication [among crew members].' " (page 246)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Wise, J.A., Abbott, D.W., Tilden, D., Dyck, J.L., Guide, P.C., & Ryan, L. (1993). Automation in Corporate Aviation: Human Factors Issues. CAAR-15406-93-1. Daytona Beach, FL: Center for Aviation/Aerospace Research, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. See Resource details
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