FDAI logo   ::  Site Map  ::   
Home  |  About This Website  |  Contact Us
Home » ... » Evidence for an Issue

Evidence for an Issue 9 pieces of evidence for this issue.

older pilots may be less accepting of automation (Issue #132) - Older pilots may have trouble accepting and learning to use automation, possibly making them more prone to misusing it.

  1.  
  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responded to the 5 point bi-polar survey item number 2, in which "Younger pilots are better able to cope with automated aircraft" is 1 and "Older pilots are better able to cope with automated aircraft" is 5. The following are the approximate percentages of the pilot responses to this 5 point bi-polar item: 10%=1, 48%=2, 35%=3, 6%=4, and 1%=5. (page 194)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: James, M., McClumpha, A., Green, R., Wilson, P., & Belyavin, A. (1991). Pilot attitudes to cockpit automation. In R.S. Jensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, Ohio, April 1991, 192-198. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University. See Resource details

  3.  
  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Pilots responsed to the 5 point bi-polar survey item number 2, in which "Younger pilots are better able to cope with automated aircraft" is 1 and "Older pilots are better able to cope with automated aircraft" is 5. The following are the approximate percentages of the pilot responses to this 5 point bi-polar item: 10%=1, 48%=2, 35%=3, 6%=4, and 1%=5. (page 194)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: James, M., McClumpha, A., Green, R., Wilson, P., & Belyavin, A. (1991). Pilot attitudes to cockpit automation. In R.S. Jensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, Ohio, April 1991, 192-198. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University. See Resource details

  5.  
  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: The following comment was made in response to the questionnaire statement, "Describe a problem you know of or a concern you have about flightdeck automation.": "Training 'old' pilots to use technology." (A320 First Officer)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, B., Wilson, J., & Funk, K. (1997). Flightdeck automation issues: Phase 1 survey analysis. Available: http://www.flightdeckautomation.com/ExpertSurvey/e_report.aspx. See Resource details

  7.  
  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 14 of the 30 (47%) respondents reported a 4 (= agree) or 5 (= strongly agree) with pc132 older pilots may be less accepting of automation
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

  9.  
  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 7 of the 30 (23%) respondents reported a 1 (=strongly disagree) or a 2 (=disagree) with pc132 older pilots may be less accepting of automation
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

  11.  
  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "It was generally felt that the younger pilots were able to adapt to advanced technology aircraft faster because of a familiarity with computerization. The older pilots who were more experienced with flying non-automated aircraft appeared to be somewhat uncomfortable with the computerization at first but, with some experience and attitude adjustment, they became equally proficient by the end of training." (page 208-209)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Rudisill, M. (1994). Flight Crew Experience with Automation Technologies on Commercial Transport Flight Decks. In M. Mouloua & R. Parasuraman (Eds.), Human Performance in Automated Systems: Current Research and Trends. Proceedings of the 1st Automation Technology and Human Performance Conference, held in Washington, DC April 7-9, 1994, 203-211. Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. See Resource details

  13.  
  14. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Some of the senior captains were the most skeptical of the value and safety of increasing degrees of flightdeck automation, and the younger first officers tended to be the most enthusiastic. However, many of the older captains were strong supporters of increasing automation, and of the -80 avionics and flight guidance systems in particular. It is worthy of note that two captains reached mandatory retirement age (60) during the study, meaning that they had bid the -80 with only about two years left in their career. Both expressed the sentiment that they wanted to fly the most modern aircraft that they could before retirement." This is supported by the responses to the two following Likert scale attitude items: ... First, "12. Younger pilots catch on to automation faster than older ones." In Wave One, out of a total of 36 pilot responses, the mean response was 58 with a standard deviation of 27 and a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 99. In Wave Two, out of a total of 20 pilot responses, the mean response was 62 with a standard deviation of 19 and a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 90. ... Second, "16. Older pilots seem to resist the new technologies." In Wave One, out of a total of 36 pilot responses, the mean response was 53 with a standard deviation of 21 and a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 99. In Wave Two, out of a total of 20 pilot responses, the mean response was 54 with a standard deviation of 21 and a minimum of 10 and a maximum of 86. (page 92)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: DC-9-80
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Wiener, E.L. (1985). Human Factors of Cockpit Automation: A Field Study of Flight Crew Transition. NASA Contactor Report 177333. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

  15.  
  16. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: In the Phase 1 Workshop "Several issues relevant to the various questionnaire sections were discussed. Some of the pertinant comments and findings are stated below: ... 'Older pilots tend to want to hand fly it [the approach phase].' ... Older pilots' use lower levels of automation as compared to younger pilots who often choose to turn it all on." (page 244-245)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Wise, J.A., Abbott, D.W., Tilden, D., Dyck, J.L., Guide, P.C., & Ryan, L. (1993). Automation in Corporate Aviation: Human Factors Issues. CAAR-15406-93-1. Daytona Beach, FL: Center for Aviation/Aerospace Research, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. See Resource details

  17.  
  18. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Additional Information form Open-Ended Questions" Categories were "developed as specific concerns kept emerging. Most comments were from one of the questions, whereas other were written on the back of the questionnaire or on a separate sheet of paper." The eight following statements were made by pilots and the authors grouped then under the category "Age Differences ... [statement 1] 'Coordination seems better with other crew members who readily accept and understand advanced cockpit practices. Old bold pilots who fight automation can induce stress and increase workload by (1) not understand[ing] how or why something is done forcing other pilot to do both jobs at times and (2) using a lower level of automation and thus possibly not knowing the current status of some items.' ... [statement 2] 'Had to learn mostly on my own. And some older (50s) pilots don't like to use to any degree of justification.' ... [statement 3] 'Initially, learning the systems (EFIS and FMS) was a little harder for the senior chaps with little computer game time and attitude against change. However, once over the learning curve you wonder how you ever did without it.' ... [statement 4] 'Younger pilots tend to use the technology more easily than older pilots transitioning.'... [statement 5] 'The worst parts [of initial training] were ...and how much difficulty the older pilots had in adapting to the new technology.' ... [statement 6] 'Captain neglected to turn on co-pilots inertial nav system prior to initializing FMS on that side (dual system). After co-pilot turned on INS and Captain turned on EFIS, the right side remained blank (black tubes). Captain had no clue as to how to deal with problem, or what it was (FMS needed to be re-initialized). Captains side still had a mis-compare flag after re-initializing FMS, he never canceled the warning nor did he know how. This was obviously a ground incident, however, I have seen this same problem more than once, same captain. I believe age (67) and attitude of individual as well as the fact [that] so much info is presented on the screen, that "selective viewing" is a problem.'... [statement 7] 'Overall I'm very impressed, but older pilots need more time to adjust initially (no round instruments).'... [statement 8] 'I'm getting better but other sharp PIC pilot still help me out in certain situations. The young pilots are very good. Over 50 makes it a little tougher." (page 211, 213)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Wise, J.A., Abbott, D.W., Tilden, D., Dyck, J.L., Guide, P.C., & Ryan, L. (1993). Automation in Corporate Aviation: Human Factors Issues. CAAR-15406-93-1. Daytona Beach, FL: Center for Aviation/Aerospace Research, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. See Resource details
Flight Deck Automation Issues Website  
© 1997-2013 Research Integrations, Inc.