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Evidence for an Issue 6 pieces of evidence for this issue.

pilot control authority may be diffused (Issue #104) - The traditional distribution of workload between pilots (e.g., between PF and PNF, between C and F/O) may be modified under automated flight, possibly allowing safety-critical tasks to be neglected.

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  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Experiment
    Evidence: "Based on previous research and in light of the issues associated with data link above, several experimental hypotheses were generated and tested in our simulation. ... Procedure: Within the data link condition, the pilot not flying will be more likely to use the review message log than the pilot flying following the traditional roles in cockpit procedure. ... The hypothesis that the PNF would use the review menu more than the PF was supported. Based on the total number of times the review menu was accessed, the PNF used the review menu 84% of the time." (page 1010, 1012)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lozito, S., McGann, A., & Corker, K. (Undated). Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance. See Resource details

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  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 9 of the 30 (30%) respondents reported a 4 (= agree) or 5 (= strongly agree) with pc104 pilot control authority may be diffused
    Strength: +2
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

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  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 9 of the 30 (30%) respondents reported a 1 (=strongly disagree) or a 2 (=disagree) with pc104 pilot control authority may be diffused
    Strength: -2
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

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  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Observational Study
    Evidence: "Although automation has been a clear benefit, some factors were cited which have been involved in incidents with automation. These include: ... Inadequate cockpit discipline and allocation of responsibilities between the pilot-not-flying and the pilot flying" (page 150)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Norman, S.D. & Orlady, H.W. (1988). Flightdeck Automation: Promises and Realities. Final Report of a NASA/FAA Industry Workshop. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details

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  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Experiment
    Evidence: "The results of averaging the ratings across participants and components showed that, overall, participants found the automation components to be unobtrusive (4.02), predictable (3.96), extremely helpful for reducing workload (3.81). and they were inclined to use them whenever appropriate (4.39). On the other hand, they were close to the midpoint when it came to the feeling that they were controlling the flight rather than managing the automation (3.28, in which 5 indicates high controlling), and the feeling that they were focusing on the flight rather than on the automation (3.64, in which 5 indicates attention to flight)." (page 115)
    Strength: -3
    Aircraft: various
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Skitka, L.J., Mosier, K.L., Burdick, M., & Rosenblatt, B. (2000). Automation bias and errors: Are crews better than individuals?. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 10(1), 85-97. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. See Resource details

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  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Based on the information in this study, we can summarize the areas of concern in cockpit resource management of high technology aircraft: ... 3. Automation tends to induce a breakdown of the traditional (and stated) role of the pilot flying (PF) versus pilot not flying (PNF), and a less clear demarcation of 'who does what' than in traditional cockpits." (page 178)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B757
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Wiener, E.L. (1989). Human Factors of Advanced Technology ("Glass Cockpit") Transport Aircraft. NASA Contractor Report 177528. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. See Resource details
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