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Evidence for an Issue 6 pieces of evidence for this issue.

human-centered design philosophy may be lacking (Issue #100) - Automation design may not be guided by a philosophy that gives adequate attention to the proper role and function of the human and to human capabilities and limitations. This may compromise system effectiveness and safety.

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  2. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Accident Review Study
    Evidence: 4.3.6 The FMS displays a route discontinuity warning and insufficient fuel warning. The pilot ignores the warnings, does not identify the error, and executes the change. Design analysis: The system was given a support function by providing an assessment of the new waypoint as to whether or not it connects to the previously chosen route, and an assessment of fuel capacity. Problem analysis: The route discontinuity warning to indicate that the new waypoint interrupts the pre-programmed route was not effective. The warnings may have been on a different screen. The system is instructed to fly to an undesired waypoint. Collaboration analysis: 1. The system recognises the instruction as part of a plan that connects several waypoints up to the landing point. However, assessments and warnings by the FMS were not sufficiently meaningful: the route discontinuity warning would have been expected for Rozo too, since the route was being changed in any case. Thus, the FMS only provides a partial plan assessment by noticing that the new route does not connect to the old one. However, the system may have been able to provide more useful assessments based on the information it had access to. Thus, the design insufficiently anticipated what information would be useful to the pilot here. (page 6)
    Strength: +1
    Aircraft: B757-223
    Equipment: automation: displays
    Source: Bruseberg, A., & Johnson, P. (not dated). Collaboration in the Flightdeck: Opportunities for Interaction Design. Department of Computer Science, University of Bath. Available at http://www.cs.bath.ac.uk/~anneb/collwn.pdf. See Resource details

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  4. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: Automation was perceived as beneficial by the pilots we spoke to, thus reflecting a widely observed opinion: … P1: “In all the planes I have flown, the 777 has been the most user-friendly ... if you think about how the system would function, it’s generally how it does function, they obviously thought about it in the design. (page 2)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: B777
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Bruseberg, A., & Johnson, P. (2004). Should Computers Function as Collaborators?. In Proceedings of HCI-Aero 2004 held in Toulouse, France September 29, 2004 to 1 October 2004. See Resource details

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  6. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.58. If somebody says to you <>, do you ..." 13.8% of the respondents answered either 'Absolutely agree' or 'Rather agree', 75.1% answered 'Absolutely disagree' or 'Rather disagree', and 11.1% answered 'Neither yes nor no' or gave no response. (page 37)
    Strength: +4
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Gras, A., Moricot, C., et. al. (1994). Faced with automation. Publications de la Sorbonne. See Resource details

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  8. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: "Q.58. If somebody says to you 'When designing an airplane the engineers take into account the needs of the users, i.e. the pilots', do you ..." 13.8% of the respondents answered either 'Absolutely agree' or 'Rather agree', 75.1% answered 'Absolutely disagree' or 'Rather disagree', and 11.1% answered 'Neither yes nor no' or gave no response. (page 37)
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Gras, A., Moricot, C., et. al. (1994). Faced with automation. Publications de la Sorbonne. See Resource details

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  10. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 22 of the 30 (73%) respondents reported a 4 (= agree) or 5 (= strongly agree) with pc100 human-centered design philosophy may be lacking
    Strength: +3
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details

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  12. Evidence Type: Excerpt from Survey
    Evidence: 4 of the 30 (13%) respondents reported a 1 (=strongly disagree) or a 2 (=disagree) with pc100 human-centered design philosophy may be lacking
    Strength: -1
    Aircraft: unspecified
    Equipment: automation
    Source: Lyall, E., Niemczyk, M. & Lyall, R. (1996). Evidence for flightdeck automation problems: A survey of experts. See Resource details
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