Cell Detail for Mean Criticality versus Agreement Ratings Matrix

Probable problem (right skew)
3.75 to 3.99
  • When automation functions reliably, as it does most of the time, it can induce pilots to be less alert in monitoring its behavior, and less prepared to take immediate action when needed. (pc3)
  • The behavior of automation devices is not adequately apparent for pilot monitoring, resulting in reduced pilot awareness of automation behavior. (pc83)
  • It is difficult to decide what levels of automation are appropriate in specific circumstances, increasing pilot workload. (pc103)
  • Pilots use automation in situations where it should not be used. (pc106)
  • In pilot evaluation there is an overemphasis on automation skills to the extent that manual and non automation related cognitive skills are minimized. Pilots may therefore lack non automated operations skills. (pc116)
  • Information about the mode (state) and behavior of the automation itself adds to the pilot's information processing load, resulting in increased workload and opportunities for error. (pc119)
  • The ability of the automation to perform correctly and quickly is limited by design constraints, in some cases increasing pilot workload and the opportunity for error. (pc126)
  • The necessary simplicity of the pilot automation interface may hide important complexities, leading to unexpected behaviors and difficulty performing complex operations. (pc128)
  • Pilots become overconfident in the capabilities of automation and fail to exercise appropriate diligence, leading to unsafe conditions. (pc131)
  • Training objectives, methods, materials, or equipment are inadequate to properly train pilots for safe and effective automated aircraft operation. (pc133)
  • Automation displays often show only current state and no estimate of future state. This prevents pilots from anticipating and preparing for problems that are likely to occur. (pc152)
  • Onboard warning and advisory systems may cause conflicts with ATC clearances, leading to loss of separation or other unsafe conditions. (pc157)
  • Automation often increases pilot workload, leading to unsafe conditions. (pc164)
  • Cultural differences are not adequately considered in automation design, training, certification, and operations. Because they are not considered, they have resulting effects on performance and how automation is used. (pc165)

RETURN TO Expert Survey Report