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About This Database » Expert Survey Evidence » Evidence from Expert Survey Organized by Focus of the Issue

Evidence from Expert Survey Organized by Focus
Overview

This page lists the issues identified in our study order of focus of the issue. Each issue is linked to a page containing its complete issue statement and the evidence related to it found in the analysis of our flight deck automation expert survey.

Automation-Centered Issues

development process
Issues related to the design and testing of automation.


    operational knowledge may be lacking in design process (issue121) EVIDENCE
    cultural differences may not be considered (issue165) EVIDENCE
    function allocation may be difficult (issue117) EVIDENCE
    failure modes may be unanticipated by designers (issue024) EVIDENCE
    testing may be inadequate (issue115) EVIDENCE




functionality
Issues related to the set of functions automation can perform and how those functions are performed.


    automation may not work well under unusual conditions (issue150) EVIDENCE
    automation requirements may conflict (issue160) EVIDENCE
    automation may lack reasonable functionality (issue109) EVIDENCE
    workarounds may be necessary (issue107) EVIDENCE
    automation performance may be limited (issue126) EVIDENCE
    automation may use different control strategies than pilots (issue122) EVIDENCE
    database may be erroneous or incomplete (issue110) EVIDENCE
    automation integration may be poor (issue011) EVIDENCE




complexity
Issues related to the structural and functional complexity of automation, including number of modes, number of ways of performing a function with it, and the complexity of procedures for using it.


    automation may be too complex (issue040) EVIDENCE
    complex automation may have overly simplistic interface (issue128) EVIDENCE
    data entry and programming may be difficult and time consuming (issue112) EVIDENCE




levels of automation
Issues related to the extent to which flight deck functions are performed by machines and how pilots use different levels of automation available to them.


    automation level decisions may be difficult (issue103) EVIDENCE
    protections may be lost though pilots continue to rely on them (issue015) EVIDENCE
    manual operation may be difficult after transition from automated control (issue055) EVIDENCE
    automation use may slow pilot responses (issue161) EVIDENCE




automation failure
Issues related to the nature and consequences of automation failures and how pilots respond to and cope with them.


    failure modes may be unanticipated by designers (issue024) EVIDENCE
    failure assessment may be difficult (issue025) EVIDENCE
    failure recovery may be difficult (issue023) EVIDENCE




standardization
Issues related to standardization of automation function, pilot/automation interface, and. operating procedures


    standardization may be lacking (issue138) EVIDENCE
    similarity may be superficial (issue149) EVIDENCE
    software versions may proliferate (issue134) EVIDENCE




other automation-centered issues
Other issues related to automation itself.


    automation information in manuals may be inadequate (issue140) EVIDENCE







Pilot/Automation Interaction-Centered Issues

human-centered design
Issues related to the degree to which human characteristics, capabilities, limitations, and preferences are taken into account in automation design.


    human-centered design philosophy may be lacking (issue100) EVIDENCE
    cultural differences may not be considered (issue165) EVIDENCE




pilot/automation responsibility and authority
Issues related to the relative levels of responsibility and authority that pilots and automation have.


    pilots have responsibility but may lack authority (issue012) EVIDENCE
    mode transitions may be uncommanded (issue044) EVIDENCE
    communication between computers may be unsupervised (issue022) EVIDENCE




pilot/automation interface
Issues relating to automation displays and controls and how they are arranged on the flight deck.


    interface may be poorly designed (issue039) EVIDENCE
    displays (visual and aural) may be poorly designed (issue092) EVIDENCE
    information integration may be required (issue009) EVIDENCE
    data access may be difficult (issue047) EVIDENCE
    information overload may exist (issue014) EVIDENCE
    information processing load may be increased (issue119) EVIDENCE
    insufficient information may be displayed (issue099) EVIDENCE
    data presentation may be too abstract (issue087) EVIDENCE
    behavior of automation may not be apparent (issue083) EVIDENCE
    data entry and programming may be difficult and time consuming (issue112) EVIDENCE
    controls of automation may be poorly designed (issue037) EVIDENCE
    data re-entry may be required (issue049) EVIDENCE
    data entry errors on keyboards may occur (issue071) EVIDENCE
    inadvertent autopilot disengagement may be too easy (issue123) EVIDENCE







Pilot-Centered Issues

pilot role
Issues related to the role of pilots in the automated aircraft and the tasks they perform.


    human-centered design philosophy may be lacking (issue100) EVIDENCE
    pilot's role may be changed (issue144) EVIDENCE
    job satisfaction may be reduced (issue013) EVIDENCE
    new tasks and errors may exist (issue089) EVIDENCE
    non-automated pilot tasks may not be integrated (issue153) EVIDENCE
    monitoring requirements may be excessive (issue005) EVIDENCE




understanding of automation
Issues related to how well pilots understand the structure and function of automation.


    understanding of automation may be inadequate (issue105) EVIDENCE
    automation may be too complex (issue040) EVIDENCE
    automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (issue108) EVIDENCE




skill
Issues related to pilots' skills.


    manual skills may not be acquired (issue007) EVIDENCE
    manual skills may be lost (issue065) EVIDENCE
    scan pattern may change (issue038) EVIDENCE
    automation skills may be lost (issue137) EVIDENCE
    transitioning between aircraft may increase errors (issue130) EVIDENCE




performance
Issues related to how well pilots perform tasks and to pilot error.


    data entry errors on keyboards may occur (issue071) EVIDENCE
    new tasks and errors may exist (issue089) EVIDENCE
    transitioning between aircraft may increase errors (issue130) EVIDENCE
    automation use may slow pilot responses (issue161) EVIDENCE
    mode selection may be incorrect (issue145) EVIDENCE




confidence
Issues related to the confidence pilots have in automation and in themselves.


    pilots may lack confidence in automation (issue046) EVIDENCE
    false alarms may be frequent (issue070) EVIDENCE
    pilots may be overconfident in automation (issue131) EVIDENCE
    pilots may be reluctant to assume control (issue026) EVIDENCE




use of automation
Issues related to decisions about when to use automation, when to not use it, and to what extent to use it.


    pilots may over-rely on automation (issue106) EVIDENCE
    pilots may under-rely on automation (issue146) EVIDENCE
    automation level decisions may be difficult (issue103) EVIDENCE
    procedures may assume automation (issue151) EVIDENCE




situation awareness
Issues related to pilots' awareness of the present and future state of the aircraft and its environment.


    situation awareness may be reduced (issue114) EVIDENCE
    pilots may be out of the loop (issue002) EVIDENCE
    state prediction may be lacking (issue152) EVIDENCE




automation awareness
Issues related to the mode and behavior of the automation, including its current state, what it is doing now and what it will do in the future.


    mode awareness may be lacking (issue095) EVIDENCE
    behavior of automation may not be apparent (issue083) EVIDENCE
    mode transitions may be uncommanded (issue044) EVIDENCE
    automation behavior may be unexpected and unexplained (issue108) EVIDENCE
    vertical profile visualization may be difficult (issue053) EVIDENCE
    communication between computers may be unsupervised (issue022) EVIDENCE




attention
Issues related to pilots' focus of attention to -- what they are devoting conscious thought and action to.


    automation may demand attention (issue102) EVIDENCE
    monitoring requirements may be excessive (issue005) EVIDENCE
    both pilots' attention simultaneously diverted by programming (issue075) EVIDENCE
    pilots may be out of the loop (issue002) EVIDENCE




workload
Issues related to how automation affects pilot workload, both mental and physical.


    automation may adversely affect pilot workload (issue079) EVIDENCE
    fatigue may be induced (issue156) EVIDENCE
    information processing load may be increased (issue119) EVIDENCE
    planning requirements may be increased (issue158) EVIDENCE
    automation may lack reasonable functionality (issue109) EVIDENCE
    data entry and programming may be difficult and time consuming (issue112) EVIDENCE




other pilot-centered issues
Other issues related to the pilots.


    older pilots may be less accepting of automation (issue132) EVIDENCE
    cultural differences may not be considered (issue165) EVIDENCE







Crew-Centered Issues

crew coordination
Issues related to how automation affects flightcrew interaction.


    crew coordination problems may occur (issue084) EVIDENCE
    cross checking may be difficult (issue072) EVIDENCE
    pilot control authority may be diffused (issue104) EVIDENCE
    inter-pilot communication may be reduced (issue139) EVIDENCE
    both pilots' attention simultaneously diverted by programming (issue075) EVIDENCE
    crew assignment may be inappropriate (issue142) EVIDENCE







Automated Aircraft/ATC Interaction-Centered Issues

ATC conflicts
Issues related to incompatibilities between the automated aircraft and air traffic control.


    flightdeck automation may be incompatible with ATC system (issue082) EVIDENCE




other automated aircraft/ATC interaction-centered issues
Other issues related to the interaction of the automated aircraft with the air traffic system.


    traffic coordination requirements may increase (issue148) EVIDENCE







Organization-Centered Issues

company automation philosophies, policies , and procedures
Issues related to airlines' philosophies about acquiring and using automation and the policies and procedures they adopt for its use.


    commercial incentives may dominate (issue127) EVIDENCE
    automation use philosophy may be lacking (issue101) EVIDENCE
    procedures may assume automation (issue151) EVIDENCE
    pilots may not be involved in equipment selection (issue141) EVIDENCE
    crew assignment may be inappropriate (issue142) EVIDENCE




pilot selection, training, and evaluation
Issues related to the airlines' selection, training, and evaluation of pilots.


    pilot selection may be more difficult (issue136) EVIDENCE
    deficiencies in basic aircraft training may exist (issue063) EVIDENCE
    training may be inadequate (issue133) EVIDENCE
    instructor training requirements may be inadequate (issue143) EVIDENCE
    transitioning between aircraft may increase training requirements (issue129) EVIDENCE
    automation may be over-emphasized in pilot evaluation (issue116) EVIDENCE
  Last update: 5 February 2007 Flight Deck Automation Issues Website  
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